Foreign Affairs Article

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9/11 in Retrospect

George W. Bush’s Grand Strategy, Reconsidered

Author: Melvyn P. Leffler
September/October 2011
Foreign Affairs


It's tempting to see the 9/11 attacks as having fundamentally changed U.S. foreign policy. It's also wrong. The Bush administration may have gone over the top in responding, but its course was less novel than generally believed. A quest for primacy and military supremacy, a readiness to act proactively and unilaterally, and a focus on democracy and free markets -- all are long-standing features of U.S. policy.

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