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Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I)

Published July 31, 1991

This treaty between the U.S. and Soviet Union limited the number of strategic offensive arms delivered by missiles and bombers. It was signed on July 31, 1991 and resulted in a forty percent reduction in arms from both parties. A second START treaty was negotiated on January 3, 1993, but Russia withdrew in 2002 after the United States withdrew from the ABM treaty; START II was replaced by the Moscow Treaty. START I expired on December 5, 2009 and the replacement treaty, the new START, was signed by Presidents Barack Obama and Vladmir Putin and went into effect in February 2011.

Excerpt:

The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the Parties, Conscious that nuclear war would have devastating consequences for all humanity, that it cannot be won and must never be fought,Convinced that the measures for the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms and the other obligations set forth in this Treaty will help to reduce the risk of outbreak of nuclear war and strengthen international peace and security,Recognizing that the interests of the Parties and the interests of international security require the strengthening of strategic stability,Mindful of their undertakings with regard to strategic offensive arms in Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of July 1, 1968; Article XI of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems of May 26, 1972; and the Washington Summit Joint Statement of June 1, 1990, ABA

Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE I

Each Party shall reduce and limit its strategic offensive armsin accordance with the provisions of this Treaty, and shall carry out the other obligations set forth in this Treaty and its Annexes, Protocols, and Memorandum of Understanding.



ARTICLE II

1.Each Party shall reduce and limit its ICBMs and ICBM launchers, SLBMs and SLBM launchers, heavy bombers, ICBM warheads, SLBM warheads, and heavy bomber armaments, so that seven years after entry into force of this Treaty and thereafter, the aggregate numbers, as counted in accordance with Article III of this Treaty, do not exceed:

(a) 1600, for deployed ICBMs and their associated launchers, deployed SLBMs and their associated launchers, and deployed heavy bombers, including 154 for deployed heavy ICBMs and their associated launchers; [RF MOU, Section II] [US MOU, Section II][Agreed State 33]

(b) 6000, for warheads attributed to deployed ICBMs, deployed SLBMs, and deployed heavy bombers, [RF MOU, Section II] [US MOU, Section II] including:[Agreed State 33][START II, Art. I,3](i) 4900, for warheads attributed to deployed ICBMs and deployed SLBMs; [RF MOU, Section II][US MOU, Section II][START II, Art. I,4] [Agreed State 33](ii) 1100, for warheads attributed to deployed ICBMs on mobile launchers of ICBMs;[RF MOU, Section II](iii) 1540, for warheads attributed to deployed heavy ICBMs.[phased heavy reductions [RF MOU, Section II] ABA2.

Each Party shall implement the reductions pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Article in three phases, so that its strategic offensive arms do not exceed:

(a) by the end of the first phase, that is, no later than 36 months after entry into force of this Treaty, and thereafter, the following aggregate numbers:(i) 2100, for deployed ICBMs and their associated launchers, deployed SLBMs and their associated launchers, and deployed heavy bombers;(ii) 9150, for warheads attributed to deployed ICBMs, deployed SLBMs, and deployed heavy bombers;(iii) 8050, warheads attributed to deployed ICBMs and deployed SLBMs;

(b) by the end of the second phase, that is, no later than 60 months after entry into force of this Treaty, and thereafter, the following aggregate numbers:(i) 1900, for deployed ICBMs and their associated launchers, deployed SLBMs and their associated launchers, and deployed heavy bombers;(ii) 7950, for warheads attributed to deployed ICBMs, deployed SLBMs, and deployed heavy bombers;(iii) 6750, warheads attributed to deployed ICBMs and deployed SLBMs;

(c) by the end of the third phase, that is, no later than 84 months after entry into force of this Treaty: the aggregate numbers provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article .ABA3. Each Party shall limit the aggregate throw-weight [RF MOU, Section II] [US MOU Section II]of its deployed ICBMs [RF MOU, Section I] [US MOU Section I] and deployed SLBMs [RF MOU, Section I] [US MOU Section I] so that seven years after entry into force of this Treaty and thereafter such aggregate throw-weight does not exceed 3600 metric tons. ABA [Throw-weight Limits/Provisions for Types of ICBMs and SLBMs].

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