International Business: Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility
Updated September 5, 2012
How can businesses prevent partnering with corrupt businesses abroad and enforce ethical practices in their organizations? International Business: Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Research Links provide resources on how organizations, countries, and individuals can fight corruption and create a competitive, honest international market. The links are divided into:
Context for recent initiatives to promote corporate governance and anti-corruption measures in business.
History and Background
- Caijing.com: China's Economy: 60 years of Progress
(2010) Fourth installment: "Comprehensive Reforms, 1994 to 2009." Chinese government reforming its dual system (state and market) to combat inaccurate prices and the state and corporations benefiting at people's expense.
Includes blog commentary and developments in the business world, definitions of corporate governance (contributed by business leaders and organizations), and annotated links to major organizations.
- Encycogov: Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance
International Corporate Governance: tables that compare "legislative systems for ten areas of relevance in corporate governance and for various countries, regions as they looked from 1980 to 1995."
- Sullivan and Worcester: Financial Crisis Timeline
(2008-2010) shows origins, major companies, government actions, and other significant events in the recent financial crisis.
- SEC: Virtual Museum and Archive of the History of Financial Regulation
Interactive timeline of events related to founding of the United State's Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) and their context in American and international history. Gallery exhibits explain and analyze events with more depth. Includes original documents
Data, Polls, and Surveys
- Dow Jones: State of Anti-Corruption Compliance Survey
"Concern over corruption liability leads companies to abandon business partners in foreign markets."
- Eurobarometer: "Attitude of Europeans towards corruption"
From European Union. (November 2009). Scroll to Report 325: "The close links between business and politics is the most common cause Europeans give for corruption."
- Global Integrity: Data
"Annually assesses the existence, effectiveness, and citizen access to key national-level anti-corruption mechanisms across a diverse range of countries." Includes questions asked, key findings, and analysis of data.
- Global Integrity: Reports
Country assessments by in-country experts on corruption levels and citizen access to government processes, legal and media realities, access to field reporter notebooks.
- The Globalist: A (Very) Brief History of Corruption
Compiled and analyzed Transparency International Data; international perceptions of corruption between 1998-2010.
- OECD: Data on Enforcement of the Anti-Bribery Convention
(2010, 2009) "Comparative Table of Enforcement Data Collected from the 38 Parties to the Anti-Bribery Convention"
- World Bank Data: Ease of Doing Business
(Data tables back to 2003) various indicators to view the state of business in various economies, steps required to do business, enforce contracts, protect investors.
- World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Report
133 economies examined, data tables with 100 indicators (section on Ethics and Corruption: corruption and lack of corruption often reasons why a country is lower or higher in rankings).
Foundational conventions, legislation, and governmental statements on fighting corruption in their regions.
Official Statements, Conventions, and Legislation
- African Union: Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption
(2003, PDF) addresses government, civilian and private sector partnerships to fight corruption.
- China: Report on the Work of the Government--Strengthening efforts to promote clean government and combat corruption
(2011) from report to 11th National People's Congress. Eradicating corruption in "construction, sale of land use right , mines development, stated-owed property rights trading and government procurement." Videos of Congress sessions on cntv.cn.
- EU: EUR-Lex, Access to European Laws
Collection of EU laws related to fighting corruption.
- India: Business.gov.in
Background on Corporate Governance in India and International Guidelines.
- India: Central Vigilance Commission's National Anti-Corruption Strategy
(2010, PDF) History, forms, and impact of corruption in India and how the administrators, international organizations, the private sector and citizens can fight it. CVC.gov.in has index to related cases, law materials.
- OECD: Convention on Combatting Bribery of Public Officials in International Business Transactions
Text of the original convention (2001), implementation by country, member countries, 2009 Anti-Bribery Recommendations.
- UK: Ministry of Justice Bribery Act
Discussion and tools for understanding Bribery Act 2010.
- UK: Dept for Business, Innovation, and Skills -- Combating International Corruption
Discussion and tools for understanding Bribery Act 2010.
- UN: Convention Against Corruption
Regular conferences held to continue to prevent, criminalize and work internationally to stop corruption
- U.S.: Department of Justice -- U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
(2010) portal to legislative history, lay-person’s guide, international agreements.
- U.S.: Department of State -- International Anti-Corruption and Good Governance Act
- U.S.: Department of Treasury -- Terrorism and Illicit Finance
How Treasury enforces U.S. Patriot Act, 311 Actions: "to target specific money laundering and terrorist financing risks" (311 Actions, U.S. Patriot Act). Also: tracking terrorist financing, protecting charitable organizations
- U.S.: Federal Trade Commission
To prevent business practices that are anticompetitive or deceptive or unfair to consumers; to enhance informed consumer choice...without unduly burdening legitimate business activity.
Organizations and meetings for businesses to establish partnerships and best practices.
Organizations and Institutes
- Asian Corporate Governance Association
Annotated links for banks, government financial departments, and other regulation organizations in China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand. (Most other publications on site are member-only).
- Canadian Coalition for Good Governance
Links to organizations in Canada, the United States and International, in areas such as Legal and Regulatory, Provincial Securities, Commissions, Governance Ratings, Education.
- EU: European Partners Against Corruption
"EU's National Police Oversight Bodies and Anti-Corruption Authorities"; members' anti-corruption declarations, Best Practices report.
- Government Accountability Project: Corporate & Financial Accountability
Short description of major legislation that protects corporate whistleblowers: "Founded in 1977, GAP is the nation’s leading whistleblower protection and advocacy organization...a nonpartisan, public interest group."
- International Chamber of Commerce
International guidelines and standards to fight corruption.
- International Compliance Association Links
Links to international organizations by country, that deal with financial regulation, law enforcement, and financial intelligence.
- International Corporate Governance Network (ICGN): Best Practices
Organization of international business leaders, who discuss how they handle possibilities of corruption; implementation guides for investors and for businesses.
- NYU Law: Center for Transnational Litigation and Commercial Law
Links to international commercial laws, conflict of laws, and litigation. Also has blogs with analysis of court cases in the news.
- World Economic Forum: Partnering Against Corruption Initiative
Communities to join, based on size of business, industry; speeches from and discussions between various business executives on why anti-corruption is vital and how to implement zero tolerance policies, while still supporting business.
Specific instances of corruption and how anti-corruption measures were implemented.
Country Reports and Case Studies
Examples of due diligence: how organizations can create their own anti-corruption and corporate governance policies and analyze those of potential business partners.
Collections of tools, articles, graphs, and links to support research about corruption and implementation of anti-corruption measures in businesses.
Comprehensive Research Guides
- Better Business Bureau: Business Resources
Tips, book suggestions, Federal Trade Commission guide.
- Corporate Watch
Company profiles in different industries, research reports with suggested solutions, links to other corporate watchers.
- Enterprise Development Website: Business ethics and corporate social responsibility
Guides to international resources and organizations involved in holding corporations accountable; thorough overviews of site offerings.
- Global Advice Network: Business Anti-Corruption Portal: Integrity System
Aimed at Small-to-Medium Enterprises; tools to perform due diligence: sample anti-corruption policies, corruption cases, grey areas (gifts, travel, etc.), whistle blowing, documents on how specific countries and organizations are fighting corruption.
- globalEdge: International Business Resource Desk
Links to international business organizations with statistical data, multi-country comparisons, news and links to organizations dealing with Corporate Governance.
- U4 Anti-Corruption Portal, Private Sector and Corruption
Database of private sector projects addressing corruption, publications on expert answers and practicing anti-corruption, helpdesk for questions, annotated links, links to conventions and additional “themes” in corruption (government, NGOs, etc).
- World Bank Institute: Business Fighting Corruption
Includes business cases on why it is important to fight corruption, specific cases in different countries and companies.
Effects of Corruption in Business