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Toward an Angola Strategy

Prioritizing U.S.-Angola Relations

Chairs: , AEA Investors LLC, and , External Affairs, AIG Inc.
Director: Major General William L. Nash, U.S. Army (Ret.)

Toward an Angola Strategy - toward-an-angola-strategy
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Publisher Council on Foreign Relations Press

Release Date May 2007

Price $15.00 hardcover

80 pages
ISBN 978-0-87609-370-2


Peace has become a reality in Angola since the end of its bloody, twenty-seven-year civil war in 2002. However, much work remains to be done if Angola is to become a democratic state with an inclusive and prosperous society. It is in the interest of the United States to help develop a sustainable and lasting peace in Angola—not only for the security of U.S. energy supplies, but also to promote stability in southern Africa. In so doing, the United States must tread carefully, because while Angola's leaders respect and, at heart, want a strong relationship with the United States, there are many in Angola who—based in part on the history of U.S.-Angola relations—are suspicious of American policy.

The mission of the Council's Center for Preventive Action (CPA) is to help prevent, defuse, or resolve conflicts in countries or regions that may otherwise be overlooked. After a careful assessment of the country, the CPA's Independent Preventive Action Commission finds Angola to be an emerging power on the African continent, one with the potential to realize long-term stability and prosperity. Sensitive that any proposals must not exceed the reach of American power and influence—and recognizing that stamping out corruption or producing respect for democracy in a manner Americans would recognize, especially after centuries of Portuguese colonial rule in the country and decades of civil war, is a long-term goal—the commission aimed to be realistic in its recommendations. The commission believes that the United States should firmly and clearly state that nurturing U.S.-Angola relations is important to the United States. In addition to increased diplomatic attention and sustained assistance, the United States can take steps to advance shared objectives through more regular bilateral discussions, cooperation with multilateral organizations, and innovative partnerships with private enterprises.

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Kofi Appenteng is a partner at Thacher Proffitt & Wood LLP. Mr. Appenteng is active in many professional and civic organizations, including the Africa-America Institute, where he serves as board chair; the Community Service Society of New York; the Institute for International and Comparative Law; Instituto de Empresa; University of Cape Town Fund, Inc.; the Association of the Bar of the City of New York; and the New York State Bar Association.

Peter W. Baird is group president for therapeutic devices at Encore Medical Corporation. Previously, he was a partner in McKinsey & Company's Mid-Atlantic Office. Prior to joining McKinsey, Mr. Baird was a principal at Brait Capital Partners Ltd., a South African private equity firm, and he was an economics lecturer at the University of Cape Town. He also worked as an investment banker at Lehman Brothers in New York.

Pauline H. Baker is president of the Fund for Peace, a research and educational organization that works to prevent war and alleviate the conditions that cause war. A political scientist who lived in sub-Saharan Africa for over a decade and traveled throughout the continent, Baker has taught at the University of Lagos in Nigeria, the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, and Georgetown University’s Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service. She was also a professional staff member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and staff director of the African Affairs Subcommittee. She has published over eighty articles, essays, and books, and is one of the coauthors of the Failed States Index, the first global ranking of conflict risk within states.

Malik M. Chaka is the director of threshold countries for the Millennium Challenge Corporation. He served as a professional staff member with the Africa Subcommittee of the House International Relations Committee for seven years. Mr. Chaka has followed developments in Angola for more than three decades and has traveled widely in the country. He testified before Congress on Angola in 1994. He has written on Angola topics in the Times of Zambia, Zambia Daily Mail, London-based Africa Analysis, and Terra Angolana, and edits an internationally distributed Angola Listserv.

Herman J. Cohen is a retired U.S. diplomat. His most senior positions were ambassador to Senegal, Africa director in the National Security Council, and assistant secretary of state for African affairs under President George H.W. Bush. He now lectures at Johns Hopkins University and consults for U.S. businesses in Africa.

Julius E. Coles is the president of Africare. Before assuming this position, he was the director of Morehouse College's Andrew Young Center for International Affairs from 1997 to 2002. He served as the director of Howard University’s Ralph J. Bunche International Affairs Center from 1994 to 1997. Mr. Coles retired from the U.S. Foreign Service in 1994 with the rank of career minister. Most of Mr. Coles's career of some twenty-eight years in the U.S. Foreign Service was spent as a senior official with USAID. He was mission director in Swaziland and Senegal and served in Vietnam, Morocco, Liberia, Nepal, and Washington, DC.

Chester A. Crocker is the James R. Schlesinger Professor of Strategic Studies at Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign Service. He served as chairman of the board of the United States Institute of Peace from 1992 to 2004, and continues as a member of its board. From 1981 to 1989, he was U.S. assistant secretary of state for African affairs and mediated the prolonged negotiations among Angola, Cuba, and South Africa that led to Namibia’s transition to independence, and to the withdrawal of Cuban forces from Angola. He serves as a member of the boards of various public and private companies and not-for-profit institutions. Dr. Crocker is the author of High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighborhood, coauthor (with Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall) of Taming Intractable Conflicts: Mediation in the Hardest Cases, and coeditor (with Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall) of Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict.

Frank E. Ferrari is president of ProVentures Inc., an international advisory group with a major focus on Africa. He was formerly acting president and senior vice president of the Africa-America Institute, heading up its office in South Africa from 1992 to 1994. He is a member of the South North Development Initiative, and the African adviser to the International Advisory Board of Independent Newspapers. He is a graduate of New York University, and former member of the Africa Faculty Seminar at Columbia University.

Adam P. Frankel was a Rosenthal Fellow in the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the U.S. Department of State and has worked in the Office of Presidential Speechwriting at the White House. He was educated at Princeton University and the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he was a Fulbright scholar.

David L. Goldwyn is president of Goldwyn International Strategies, LLC. He served previously as assistant secretary of energy for international affairs (1999–2001) and counselor to the secretary of energy (1998–99), working on international energy policy, international science and technology policy, international oil emergencies, and trade and investment issues. He was senior adviser and counsel to the U.S. Ambassador to the UN (1997–98). He has also served in the U.S. Department of State as chief of staff to the undersecretary for political affairs (1993–97), special assistant to undersecretaries Arnold Kanter and Peter Tarnoff (1992–93), and attorney in the Office of the Legal Adviser (1991–92).

Paul J. Hare is executive director of the U.S.-Angola Chamber of Commerce. A career officer of the U.S. Foreign Service, he served as ambassador to Zambia from 1985 to 1988 and U.S. special representative for the Angolan peace process from 1993 to 1998. He is the author of Angola’s Last Best Chance for Peace: An Insider’s Account of the Peace Process.

Patrick Hayford is the director of the UN Office of the special adviser for Africa.

Edward V.K. Jaycox is a managing director of Emerging Markets Partnership Global, a private equity investment firm, and the chief executive officer of the AIG African Infrastructure Fund. Mr. Jaycox is chairman of the boards of the West Africa Growth Fund and the Central Africa Growth Fund. He was an officer of the World Bank for over thirty years and the longest-serving regional vice president for Africa (1984–1996).

Princeton N. Lyman is the adjunct senior fellow for Africa policy studies at the Council on Foreign Relations. He is also adjunct professor at Georgetown University. From 1999 to 2003, he was executive director of the Global Interdependence Initiative at the Aspen Institute. Before that, he worked with the U.S. government, serving as deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs, ambassador to Nigeria, director of refugee programs, ambassador to South Africa, assistant secretary of state for international organization affairs, and director of USAID in Ethiopia. Ambassador Lyman is a member of several boards, including the American Academy of Diplomacy, the Fund for Peace, Childreach/Plan, the Amy Biehl Foundation, and the U.S.-South Africa Business Council. He also cochairs the Southern Africa Working Group for the Corporate Council on Africa.

Callisto Madavo is a visiting professor to the African Studies Program at Georgetown University. Previously, he held several senior-level positions in the World Bank, including regional vice president for the Africa region, country director for East Asia, country director for East Africa, as well as division chief of the Pakistan Programs department. Most recently, he served as a special adviser to the president of the World Bank.

Vincent A. Mai is chairman of AEA Investors LLC, a global private equity firm with offices in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Prior to joining AEA in 1989, he was a managing director of Lehman Brothers, where he was cohead of investment banking. He has served on the boards of several institutions, including the Council on Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. He is chairman of the board of Sesame Workshop and also serves on the boards of the Juilliard School and the International Center for Transitional Justice. Mr. Mai is the chairman of the Africa Policy Studies Advisory Board at the Council on Foreign Relations and chairman of the Africa Advisory Committee at Human Rights Watch.

Mora L. McLean is president and chief executive officer of the Africa- America Institute (AAI), the oldest U.S.-based nonprofit organization concerned with promoting U.S.-Africa relations through education, training, and dialogue. She joined AAI from the Ford Foundation, where she was deputy director for Africa and Middle East Programs and before that, the West Africa representative based in Lagos, Nigeria. She is a Wesleyan University trustee and member of New York University’s adjunct faculty. She also serves on the boards of directors of the U.S. Institute of Peace in Washington, DC, and the U.S. International University in Nairobi, Kenya; the Advisory Board of the Management Education and Research Consortium; and the Advisory Commission for the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program established by Congress.

M. Peter McPherson is president of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges and president emeritus of Michigan State University (1993–2004). From April to October 2003, he took leave from Michigan State and served as the director of economic policy in Iraq under the Coalition Provisional Authority. Prior to that, Mr. McPherson held senior executive positions with the Bank of America (1989–93) and the U.S. government, including deputy secretary of treasury (1987–89), administrator of USAID (1981–87), and special assistant to President Gerald R. Ford. He chairs the board of the Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program, is the founding cochair of the Partnership to Cut Hunger and Poverty in Africa, is chairman of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development, and serves on the board of directors of Dow Jones & Company, Inc.

William L. Nash is the General John W. Vessey senior fellow for conflict prevention and director of the Center for Preventive Action at the Council on Foreign Relations. Major General Nash (U.S. Army, Ret.) has extensive experience in peacekeeping operations, both as a military commander in Bosnia-Herzegovina and as a civilian administrator for the UN in Kosovo. After serving in the Army for thirty-four years, he has been a fellow and visiting lecturer at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government and director of Civil-Military Programs at the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. In addition to his duties at the Council, he is also a professorial lecturer at Georgetown University, a visiting lecturer at Princeton University, and a military consultant to ABC News.

Arthur Mark Rubin is the head of Morgan Stanley's liability management group, based in New York. He previously held positions with Goldman Sachs, ABN AMRO, and Bankers Trust in New York and Sao Paulo, Brazil. He has been involved in debt restructuring and liability management transactions for a variety of corporate and sovereign borrowers, including Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, and Uruguay. Prior to his career in finance, Mr. Rubin served as the executive director of the U.S.-Angola Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Rubin received his BA from Yale University, BA (honors) from the University of Cape Town, and his MA in international relations and African studies from the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.

Marian L. Tupy is a policy analyst with the Cato Institute’s Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity, specializing in the study of Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. His articles have been published in, among others, the Financial Times and Wall Street Journal Europe. He received his BA in international relations and classics from the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, and received his PhD in international relations from the University of St. Andrews in Great Britain.

Nancy J. Walker is president of AfricaNet, an independent international institute focusing on human security and security sector governance in Africa and serving as a professional development resource to civilian, military, and civil society leaders throughout the continent. In early 2004, Dr. Walker resigned from U.S. government service after almost fifteen years. She also works with the UN Office for West Africa, the UN Office of the Special Adviser on Africa, the International Peace Academy, Femmes Africa Solidarite, and other organizations. She serves on the international advisory board of the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces and on the board of directors of the U.S. Committee for the United Nations Development Programme.

Steven D. Winch is a vice president at Ripplewood Holdings LLC, a New York-based private equity fund, where he has invested in both domestic and emerging markets. Previously, he worked at McKinsey & Company, Inc. on assignments across the United States, Asia, Australia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. Prior to McKinsey, he worked in mergers and acquisitions at Salomon Brothers Inc.

Frank G. Wisner is vice chairman of external affairs at American International Group, Inc. A career diplomat with the personal rank of career ambassador, the highest grade in the senior Foreign Service, he served as U.S. ambassador to India (1994–97). Additionally, he was ambassador to Zambia (1979–82), Egypt (1986–91), and the Philippines (1991–92). Ambassador Wisner has served in a number of senior positions in the U.S. government, including undersecretary of defense for policy (1993–94), undersecretary of state for international security affairs (1992–93), senior deputy assistant secretary for African affairs (1982–86), director of the Office of Southern African affairs (1976), and deputy executive secretary of the Department of State (1977).

James D. Zirin is a member of Sidley Austin LLP, where he is a partner in the litigation department. He was formerly an assistant U.S. attorney for the southern district of New York under Robert M. Morgenthau. He has contributed hundreds of op-ed articles on legal and foreign policy subjects to the Los Angeles Times, the Washington Times, the London Times, and Forbes. He is the cohost of the cable television talk show Digital Age. He is a member of the advisory board of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and a fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers.

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