Elizabeth Economy is the C.V. Starr senior fellow and director for Asia studies at the Council on Foreign Relations.
Dr. Economy has published widely on both Chinese domestic and foreign policy. Her most recent book, with Michael Levi, is By All Means Necessary: How China's Resource Quest is Changing the World (Oxford University Press, 2014). She is the author of The River Runs Black: The Environmental Challenge to China's Future (Cornell University Press, 2004; 2nd edition, 2010; Japanese edition, 2005; Chinese edition, 2011), which was named one of the top 50 sustainability books in 2008 by the University of Cambridge, won the 2005 International Convention on Asia Scholars Award for the best social sciences book published on Asia, and was listed as one of the top ten books of 2004 by the Globalist as well as one of the best business books of 2010 by Booz Allen Hamilton's strategy+business magazine. She also coedited China Joins the World: Progress and Prospects (Council on Foreign Relations Press, with Michel Oksenberg, 1999) and The Internationalization of Environmental Protection (Cambridge University Press, with Miranda Schreurs, 1997). She has published articles in foreign policy and scholarly journals including Foreign Affairs, Harvard Business Review, and Foreign Policy, and op-eds in the New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Wall Street Journal, among others. Dr. Economy is a frequent guest on nationally broadcast television and radio programs, has testified before Congress on numerous occasions, and regularly consults for U.S. government agencies and companies. She writes about topics involving China on CFR's Asia Program blog, Asia Unbound, which is syndicated by Forbes.com, and authors a monthly column on China's environment for the Diplomat.
Dr. Economy serves on the board of managers of Swarthmore College and the board of trustees of the Asia Foundation. She is also on the advisory council of Network 20/20 and the science advisory council of the Stockholm Environment Forum. She is a member of the World Economic Forum (WEF)'s Global Agenda Council on the United States and served as a member and then vice chair of WEF's Global Agenda Council on the Future of China from 2008 to 2014. Dr. Economy has also served on the board of the China-U.S. Center for Sustainable Development. She has taught undergraduate and graduate level courses at Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University's Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, and the University of Washington's Jackson School of International Studies.
Dr. Economy received her BA from Swarthmore College, her AM from Stanford University, and her PhD from the University of Michigan. In 2008, she received an honorary doctor of laws degree from Vermont Law School. She lives in New York City with her husband and three children.
China's Changing Fortunes
Chinese President Xi Jinping has articulated a simple but powerful vision: the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It is a patriotic call to arms, drawing inspiration from the glories of China's imperial past and the ideals of its socialist present to promote political unity at home and influence abroad. After just two years in office, Xi has advanced himself as a transformative leader, adopting an agenda that proposes to reform, if not revolutionize, political and economic relations not only within China but also with the rest of the world. To do so, he has positioned himself as the head of numerous committees and leading groups on economic reform, the military, and foreign policy, made tackling anti-corruption his signature issue, and sought to eliminate alternative political voices. Meanwhile, he is attempting to reestablish China as a global power, constructing institutions, infrastructure, and initiatives to implement Beijing's more muscular foreign policy. For the United States and much of the rest of the world, Xi's China provokes two different reactions: excitement about what a stronger, less corrupt China could achieve, and significant concern over the challenges an authoritarian, militaristic China might pose to the U.S.-backed liberal order. My work will result in a book exploring these developments and their implications for the United States and the world.
Assessing the Pivot: U.S. Engagement in Asia
The Obama administration's rebalance, or "pivot," to Asia has placed the region at the forefront of U.S. foreign policy. Washington is shoring up its alliances and committing greater military force to Asia, while at the same time is attempting to deepen economic engagement, most notably through the Trans-Pacific Partnership. But amid these commitments, shifting regional dynamics are forcing the United States to reassess its strategy toward Asia. China, eager to establish its primacy in the region, is more assertive as its economic growth gives rise to greater political influence and military might. Democratic transitions in Myanmar and Indonesia have been mirrored by the return of authoritarian tendencies in Thailand and Malaysia. In Northeast Asia, North Korea remains its obstinate, mercurial self, while Japan and South Korea, two of Washington's most reliable allies, remain distrustful of each other. How can the United States deal with these myriad issues? What are U.S. national interests in Asia, and how should Washington advance them? I will address these questions and more during meetings of the U.S.-Asia Update Roundtable Series and on the Asia Studies' blog, Asia Unbound.
The New Geopolitics of China, India, and Pakistan
The emergence of China and more recently, India, has reshaped relations and produced a broader area of economic integration in Asia. Even in southern Asia, where the strategic triangle of China, India, and Pakistan has resulted in flashpoints and suspicions, both India and China have kept their sights on increasing trade and economic growth as a security imperative for the long term. However, southern Asia's security, political, and economic foundations face stresses that could profoundly alter its evolution, usher in the return of geopolitics, and reshape political and economic relations globally. This two-year project, generously funded by the MacArthur Foundation, will explore potential flashpoints and promising areas for cooperation among China, India, and Pakistan—and identify areas where the United States can help. Over the next two years, I will explore these issues with my colleagues Alyssa Ayres and Dan Markey in a roundtable series and several publications. The project will culminate in a capstone symposium and a Council report in 2016.
The Project on the New Geopolitics of China, India, and Pakistan is made possible by a grant from the MacArthur Foundation.
China's pursuit of natural resources is restructuring markets, pushing up commodity prices, and transforming resource-rich economies. Elizabeth C. Economy and Michael Levi explore the unrivaled expansion of the Chinese economy and the global effects of its meteoric growth.
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The upcoming U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue will include tough issues like Iran, North Korea, and U.S. trade concerns over China's "indigenous innovation" policy, say four CFR experts.
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Ahead of President Obama's Asia trip, CFR experts Sheila Smith, Joshua Kurlantzick, Elizabeth Economy, and Scott Snyder discuss what the president should focus on during his visit to Japan, Singapore, China, and South Korea.
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On the twentieth anniversary of China's Tiananmen Square crackdown, six experts reflect on the country's trajectory since then. Many note China's breathtaking economic growth as well as mounting strains caused by a lack of political reforms.
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In the next round of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue, underway now, the two sides face difficult diplomatic issues but also a chance to jumpstart engagement on military and cybersecurity matters, writes CFR's Elizabeth Economy.
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China is irate about the Nobel Peace Prize given to jailed dissident Liu Xiaobo, but it should instead view it as an opportunity to move forward on political reform, says CFR's Elizabeth Economy.
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China's leaders have made a renewed call for rule of law reforms, but it is important to stress the ruling Communist Party remains above the law, says CFR's Elizabeth C. Economy.
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China's Third Plenum failed to clarify how the country's new leadership will advance economic reforms in the years ahead, says CFR's Elizabeth Economy.
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The case of dissident Chen Guangcheng amid high-level talks revealed determination by Beijing and Washington to maintain stable ties, says CFR's Elizabeth C. Economy.
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Politician Bo Xilai's sudden fall from grace unmasks long-discussed corruption within the political ranks and undermines a smooth leadership transition for the Communist Party, says CFR's Elizabeth Economy.
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The U.S. move to launch a case against China at the WTO over its cap on exporting rare earth metals is the latest international effort to hold China accountable to international trade standards, explains CFR's Elizabeth Economy.
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As Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping visits the United States, CFR's Elizabeth C. Economy says Washington must address the trust deficit with Beijing as the top policy priority.
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The Obama administration scored some successes on human rights and trade during Chinese President Hu's just-concluded state visit, but there were no breakthroughs on currency and other issues, says CFR's Elizabeth Economy.
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CFR's Elizabeth Economy says President Obama's first trip to Asia raised his credibility as a partner in the region and exposed insecurities among China's leadership.
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CFR's Elizabeth Economy says it is "not unreasonable" to seek binding commitments from China and India on emissions that would take effect a decade from now. She also recommends decoupling China from other developing nations in climate negotiations.
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After the latest high- level dialogue with China on economic, security, and environmental issues, CFR's Elizabeth C. Economy says Washington should prioritize effective rule of law in China. Virtually every other issue hinges on that, she says.
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Elizabeth Economy, CFR's director of Asian Studies, says that China's economy is now "losing steam very quickly" and that the "global economic crisis is going to make it much harder for China to address its own domestic economic problems."
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CFR’s Elizabeth C. Economy says there are increasing calls for more democracy in China and the Communist Party Congress will have to deal with who will become the so-called “fifth generation” of Chinese leaders.
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Elizabeth C. Economy, CFR’s director of Asian studies, says that President Bush’s legacy in Asia “will not be a terribly positive one.”
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Elizabeth Economy, the Council's senior fellow for Asia, says that when President Hu Jintao of China meets President Bush at the White House next Thursday, the administration would like to see some progress on "sticky security issues" like North Korea and Iran. But she does not expect to see much help from China on these questions.
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