Frank G. Klotz

Senior Fellow for Strategic Studies and Arms Control


U.S. defense policy; nuclear and space issues; U.S.-Russian relations; arms control negotiations and treaty implementation; Polar Regions.


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Ask CFR Experts

How does Russia challenge U.S. diplomatic efforts in the Middle East?

Asked by Elias El Mrabet, from Universite Libre de Bruxelles

Russia today may have less influence in the Middle East than previously, but it continues to have a stake in the region's stability and sees it as an area in which it has important national interests, often at variance with U.S. goals and objectives.

Read full answer

See more in Middle East and North Africa; Syria; Russian Federation; Diplomacy and Statecraft


The New Space Race

Author: Frank G. Klotz
National Interest

Frank G. Klotz writes SpaceX is clearly a pioneer—but it's also a business. In this sense, the greatest challenges for the company may reside not in space but in the marketplace.

See more in Space; United States


Unfinished Business

Authors: Frank G. Klotz, Susan J. Koch, and Franklin C. Miller
International Herald Tribune

Frank G. Klotz, Susan J. Koch, and Franklin C. Miller argue that as the United States and Russia continue to reduce long-range, strategic nuclear weapons to increasingly lower levels, a disparity in tactical nuclear weapons has serious implications for the overall nuclear balance between the two countries and the continued efficacy of the U.S. nuclear umbrella for its allies.

See more in Weapons of Mass Destruction; Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation; Russian Federation; United States

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Radio Interview

Guarding the U.S. Nuclear Arsenal

Following a post-Cold War erosion of senior level attention to nuclear weapons stewardship, the Air Force general charged with protecting the U.S. nuclear arsenal says his service is finally regaining its strategic focus.


Lieutenant General Frank Klotz (USAF, Ret.) is senior fellow for strategic studies and arms control at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). He is the former commander of Air Force Global Strike Command. In that position, he established and then led a brand new 23,000-person organization that merged responsibility for all U.S. nuclear-capable bombers and land-based missiles under a single chain-of-command.

Earlier in his military career, General Klotz served as the defense attaché at U.S. Embassy Moscow during a particularly eventful period in U.S.-Russian relations. As the senior American military officer based in Russia, he advised the ambassador and senior U.S. officials on a wide-range of bilateral defense issues, including financial support for securing weapons of mass destruction.

Later, as the director for nuclear policy and arms control on the National Security Council staff, he represented the White House in the talks that led to the 2002 Moscow Treaty to reduce strategic nuclear weapons. He subsequently coordinated the executive branch's negotiations with the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to ratify the treaty, resulting in a 95-0 vote in favor by the full Senate.

From 2005 to 2007, General Klotz was the vice commander of Air Force Space Command, a 39,400-person organization with responsibility for developing, acquiring, and operating a global network of launch, satellite control, and missile warning facilities. He was awarded the prestigious General Thomas D. White Trophy by the Air Force Association for the most outstanding contribution to progress in aerospace in 2006.

General Klotz has spoken extensively on defense and space topics to audiences throughout the United States, as well as abroad. He is the author of Space, Commerce and National Security (Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1998) and America on the Ice: Antarctic Policy Issues (National Defense University Press, 1990).

A distinguished graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy, General Klotz attended Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, where he earned an MPhil in international relations and a DPhil in politics. He is also a graduate of the National War College in Washington, DC. He served as a White House fellow at the State Department and as a military fellow at CFR. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Committee on International Security and Arms Control of the National Academy of Sciences, and the Secretary of State's International Security Advisory Board.