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Micah Zenko

Douglas Dillon Fellow

Expertise

Conflict prevention; U.S. national security policy; military planning and operations; nuclear weapons policy

Programs

Center for Preventive Action

Featured Publications

Contingency Planning Memorandum

Dangerous Space Incidents

Author: Micah Zenko

Dangerous incidents in outer space pose an increasing threat to U.S. assets and risk escalating into militarized crises. Douglas Dillon Fellow Micah Zenko details how the Obama administration could reduce the likelihood of such crises, or mitigate their consequences should they occur.

See more in Global; Space

All Publications

Op-Ed

Two Cheers for America’s Restraint in the Drone War

Author: Micah Zenko
ForeignPolicy.com

Compared to previous years, the Obama administration has wisely reduced the number of drone strikes that it conducts. Micah Zenko discusses why the United States' restraint in conducting strikes and rejection of demands for U.S. drone strikes on behalf of other countries are wise policy choices.

See more in Global; Drones

Op-Ed

Responsibility to Protect?

Author: Micah Zenko
ForeignPolicy.com

The interventions that U.S. policymakers have proposed to address Syria are based on a "deep misunderstandings of how U.S. force was used on behalf of humanitarian missions in the past, and have almost nothing to do with how Syrian non-combatants are actually being killed," Micah Zenko writes in his latest article. Micah discusses the "misleading characterization" that policymakers have repeated throughout the Syrian civil war.

See more in Global; United States; Peace, Conflict, and Human Rights

Article

Walking Loudly and Carrying a Big Stick

Author: Micah Zenko
Foreign Policy

A divergence of opinions between males and females is an "enduring characteristic of polls on the use of military force, regardless of the weapons system employed, military mission undertaken, whether the intervening force is unilateral or multilateral, and the strategic objective proposed," says Micah Zenko. Citing polls from the early 1990s to today, he investigates why this persistent difference in opinion exists and what it may mean for U.S. foreign policy.

See more in United States; Defense Strategy; Defense Technology; Drones

Op-Ed

If Trayvon Were Pakistani…

Author: Micah Zenko
Foreign Policy

Following President Barack Obama's remarks on the Trayvon Martin case, Micah Zenko highlights the inconsistency in Obama's policies towards justice. Although the president has stated in reference to the case that it is wrong to profile individuals based on their "appearance, associations, or statistical propensity to violence," and the use of lethal force cannot be justified as self-defense unless there is reasonable grounds to fear imminent harm, those are the exact foundational principles of U.S. signature strikes.

See more in Pakistan; United States; Drones; Ethnicity, Minorities, and National Identity

Article

To Protect and Defend...

Author: Micah Zenko
Foreign Affairs

"It is troubling that someone who lectured on constitutional law for a dozen years…would misidentify the president's primary pledge and obligation," Micah Zenko writes. In this article, Zenko highlights the discrepancies between constitutional obligations of the U.S. presidency and what President Obama and former President Bush have identified as primary obligations.

See more in United States; Presidents and Chiefs of State

Op-Ed

The No-Plan Zone

Author: Micah Zenko
Foreign Policy

According to Micah Zenko, "We are deluding ourselves if we believe that we need more time to "think through" U.S. military intervention options for Syria. We have an excellent understanding of what those options are, and a vast majority of officials, policymakers, and the American people do not believe they are worth the effort."

See more in Syria; United States; Wars and Warfare; Humanitarian Intervention

Op-Ed

Confront and Confuse

Author: Micah Zenko
Foreign Policy

In response President Obama's recent speech about drones Micah Zenko writes, "What matters now is whether the Obama administration will actually tell Congress and the American public how it is conducting targeted killings."

See more in United States; Drones

Op-Ed

How Barack Obama Has Tried to Open Up the One-Sided Drone War

Author: Micah Zenko
Financial Times

Micah Zenko examines U.S. President Barack Obama's May 23, 2013 speech on drone strike and counterterrorism policies. "The enduring impact of Mr. Obama's speech will not be what he says, but whether the new policies are reflected in how drone strikes are conducted, and whether his administration will finally and faithfully engage with the public, more than a decade after the operations began," Zenko writes.

See more in United States; Drones; Wars and Warfare

Op-Ed

Our Military, Ourselves

Authors: Micah Zenko and Amelia Wolf

Micah Zenko and research associate Amelia Wolf shed light on the societal problem of sexual assault. They state that recent attention has focused solely on the issue within military culture, thereby ignoring the root causes and realities of sexual assault in America.

Current Projects

Center for Preventive Action United Nations Roundtable Series

Director: Micah Zenko, Douglas Dillon Fellow
April 2009—Present

The UN Roundtable meeting series seeks to organize high-level discussions with senior UN officials, including officials from member states and regional organizations, on timely issues related to conflict prevention, peacekeeping, and international security. A core group of selected invitees from member state governments, the private sector, and nongovernmental communities will participate in these discussions. The goal of these not-for-attribution meetings is to raise awareness of the role of the UN in addressing critical issues of peace and security. The UN Roundtable meeting series is cosponsored by the Center for Preventive Action and the Program on International Institutions and Global Governance.

Recent Activity from Politics, Power, and Preventive Action

CFR Events

General Meeting ⁄ New York

Assessing U.S. Drone Strike Policies

Panelists:

Jameel Jaffer, Deputy Legal Director, American Civil Liberties Union, Michael E. Leiter, Senior Counsel to the Chief Executive Officer, Palantir Technologies; Former Director, National Counterterrorism Center, Micah Zenko, Douglas Dillon Fellow, Center for Preventive Action, Council on Foreign Relations; Author, Reforming U.S. Drone Strike Policies, Council Special Report No. 65

Presider:

Karen J. Greenberg, Director, Center on National Security, Fordham Law School
March 1, 2013 12:30-1:00 p.m. - Lunch
1:00-2:00 p.m. - Meeting

This meeting is on the record.

ListenWatch

Academic Conference Call

U.S. Drone Policy

Speaker:

Micah Zenko, Douglas Dillon Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations
December 5, 2012 12:00-1:00 p.m. - (ET)

This meeting is on the record.

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General Meeting ⁄ Washington

Next Steps in U.S. and Russian Nuclear Cooperation

Speakers:

Rose E. Gottemoeller, Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance, U.S. Department of State, Steven Pifer, Senior Fellow and Director, Arms Control Initiative, Brookings Institution, Micah Zenko, Fellow for Conflict Prevention, Center for Preventive Action, Council on Foreign Relations

Presider:

Clifford A. Kupchan, Director, Europe and Eurasia, Eurasia Group
January 13, 2011 8:00-8:30 a.m. - Breakfast Reception
8:30-9:30 a.m. - Meeting

This meeting is on the record.

ListenWatch

Academic Conference Call

Drone Strikes, Cruise Missiles, and Political Outcomes

Speaker:

Micah Zenko, Fellow for Conflict Prevention, Council on Foreign Relations; Author, Between Threats and War: U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World, Council on Foreign Relations

Presider:

Irina A. Faskianos, Vice President, National Program & Outreach, Council on Foreign Relations
September 16, 2010

This meeting is not for attribution.

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Press/Panels

Article

Report: China, EMP threaten to wipe out U.S. satellites

A worrisome new memo from the Council on Foreign Relationsindicates that China, without warning, is poised to knock out U.S. satellites, especially those used by the Pentago "The threats to U.S. space assets are significant and growing," said the "contingency planning memo" titled "Dangerous Space Incidents." It also cited Iran, North Korea, space junk and electromagnetic pulse as threats.

Article

Space isn’t just the final frontier—it’s a dangerous venue for geopolitical brinksmanship

American national security analyst Micah Zenko of the Council on Foreign Relations outlines these concerns in a new report on the growing threat of dangerous space incidents. He compares the problem to cybersecurity, another relatively new concern that has attracted attention from the world's security leaders. In comparison, he says that senior officials are not paying enough attention to potential problems in space, where there is much less room for error.

Article

Space terrorism, floating debris pose threats to US

"Threats to U.S. satellites would reduce the country's ability to attack suspected terrorists with precision-guided munitions and conduct imagery analysis of nuclear weapons programs, and could interrupt non-cash economic activity depending on the severity of the attack and number of satellites disrupted," wrote Micah Zenko, the Douglas Dillon Fellow at the CFR's Center for Preventive Action and the report's author.

Article

Report: US Space Assets Threatened By Debris Like In Film 'Gravity'

"Gravity," the Academy Award-winning film, portrays the dangers posed by space debris in a visually striking way – and depicts a scenario of catastrophic satellite destruction that could actually happen, the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) said.

Article

How space trash could start a nuclear war

The report makes a not-crazy case that efforts by China and other powers to limit America's total military dominance of space could accidentally destroy an American satellite, inadvertently convincing the US that war was coming and prompting retaliation on Earth. Its author, Micah Zenko, has made a name for himself in report-after-report downplaying the threat to the United States from China, terrorists, and, really, most things. So that fact that Zenko is this concerned about spaceshould tell you something.

Article

US facing increased threats to its space interests, report says

"The United States has strategic interests in preventing and mitigating dangerous space incidents, given its high reliance on satellites for a variety of national security missions and unparalleled global security commitments and responsibilities," writes Micah Zenko, the report's author. "The longer the United States delays preventive and mitigating efforts, the less dominant its position will be in shaping 'rules of the road' for space."

Article

How the U.S. Is Vulnerable to Terrorism in Space

For example, if one of these hostile countries acquires advanced space capabilities, they could feasibly attack a U.S. satellite to gain an upper hand in negotiations, hold off potential hostile acts, or as an act of defense, says Micah Zenko, the Douglas Dillon fellow in the Center for Preventive Action at the CFR and the report's author. But, according to Zenko's report, terrorists take a back seat to another space threat: accidents.

Article

What Briefing Chinese Officials On Cyber Really Accomplishes

Chinese defense planners, like their counterparts in the Pentagon, will be looking at capabilities more than stated intentions. Moreover, as my colleague Micah Zenko pointed out to me, there is often a disconnect between what policy makers and warfighters say.

Article

Drone Proliferation Tests Arms Control

"It's a pretty contentious fight" between the State Department's Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation and the Pentagon's Defense Technology Security Administration, said Micah Zenko, a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, in a March 17 interview. The State Department says that "if you pull at the thread of MTCR, you will weaken the nonproliferation regime as a whole. The other side says the international market is going to supply these UAVs anyway," Zenko said.

Panel

Risk and Geopolitics

Experts discuss current geopolitical trends and the risk of conflicts taking place around the world.

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Article

US foreign policy's gender gap

The dearth of women in US foreign policy is a subject of continual interest, mostly because it never changes. According to a 2011 survey by policy analyst Micah Zenko, women make up less than 30 percent of senior positions in the government, military, academy, and think tanks.

Radio Interview

Drones and the Kill List Now

On NPR's On Point with Tom Ashbrook, Micah Zenko discusses the White House's debate on targeting a U.S. citizen with a drone strike, "kill lists," and U.S. drone strike policies.

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Article

Why a Pakistani reporter is suing the CIA for murder

This lower-court ruling hasn't halted the US drone program. Micah Zenko of the Council on Foreign Relations says the White House's argument is that Pakistan's military "cannot or will not address the threat to US persons." By this logic, "it does not matter if the Pakistani Parliament or courts weigh in," he says.

Article

Congress Resists Pentagon Drone Oversight as U.S. and Partners Continue Targeted Killings

Micah Zenko of the Council on Foreign Relations, who has argued that lead authority for drone strikes should be consolidated under the Defense Department, explains that placing the program under Pentagon control "would allow the program to be defended publicly," which is not the case for the covert drone program controlled by the CIA. He adds that the move would not necessarily have operational implications for how the program is carried out.

Panel

U.S. Use of Military Force

At the New America Foundation, Micah Zenko served as a panelist to discuss the use of force by the United States after 9/11, particularly the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF).

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Article

The Drone Problem

On October 8, 2013, the Straddler met with Micah Zenko to discuss U.S. drone strike policies.

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Panel

War by Remote

Micah Zenko spoke on a panel titled "Strategy & Law" at a conference, "War by Remote: The Battlefields of the Future," at the University of Copenhagen.

Radio Interview

A Translation Guide to Foreign Policy Gibberish

Micah Zenko was interviewed live on Press Pool on Sirius XM Radio to expand on his article "A Translation Guide to Foreign Policy Gibberish," which was published on ForeignPolicy.com (September 4, 2013).

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Video Interview

Drones in Yemen

As the United States attempts to battle terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), many have raised questions about the efficacy of drones strikes as part of a larger counter-terrorism strategy. Micah Zenko, the Douglas Dillon fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, evaluates how effective the U.S. counter-terrorism strategy is.

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Panel

Challenges to peace and security in times of drones, robots and digital warfare

At the Heinrich Böll Foundation's14th Annual Foreign Policy Conference, Micah Zenko served on a panel titled, "Summary and outlook: on the issue of containing high-tech weapons in international political frameworks." Panelists discussed the challenges that new weapons and technologies pose to peace, security, and international law.

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Panel

Drones, Kill-lists, and Accountability

Micah Zenko spoke at the 2013 Alexander Hamilton Society Student Leader Conference on a panel discussion, "Drones, Kill-lists, and Accountability," in which he gave a response to a presentation by Gregory McNeal of Pepperdine University.

Article

Add Morality to List of Drone Victims

Yet while Obama described drone strikes in the same breath as "a necessary evil," defining unmanned aerial violence as indispensable to U.S. national security is wrongheaded. As Micah Zenko's special report for the Council on Foreign Relations on reforming drone policy notes, the drawbacks actually outweigh the benefits.

Radio Interview

Drone Strikes and Diplomacy, from Yemen to Pakistan

On The Takeaway with John Hockenberry, Micah Zenko, Douglas Dillon Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations and author of a recent comprehensive report on drone strike policies, describes the diplomatic problems that arise from targeted killing.

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Video Interview

Discussion about President Obama's speech

On the Charlie Rose show, a panel of experts discussed President Obama's May 23, 2013 speech on drone strike and counterterrorism policies, including Micah Zenko of the Council on Foreign Relations; David Kilcullen, former advisor to Gen. Petraeus; David Ignatius of the Washington Post; Karen Greenberg of Fordham Law School;and Philip Mudd, former Deputy Director of the CIA and the FBI.

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Article

Debate Aside, Number of Drone Strikes Drops Sharply

"Globally these operations are hated," said Micah Zenko, a scholar at the Council on Foreign Relations who wrote a major study of targeted killing this year. "It's the face of American foreign policy, and it's an ugly face."

Video Interview

Do Our Drone Policies Make Any Sense?

President Obama says he is free to use drones to attack senior members of al Qaeda who are planning to attack the United States. So far drones may have killed as many as 4,700 people, including American citizens. What, if any, limitations should be placed on the president in using drones to target and kill suspected terrorists? Council on Foreign Relations fellow Micah Zenko tells Jim Zirin that definitive standards are necessary to prevent drone attacks from spinning out of control.

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Article

As New Drone Policy Is Weighed, Few Practical Effects Are Seen

But Micah Zenko of the Council on Foreign Relations, who studies counterterrorism strikes, said that in the long run, a move away from the covert side of the C.I.A. might make sense, allowing Congress to discuss the strikes and their consequences far more fully in public. "If it's a priority of the president and the secretary of defense, the military can be far more open than the C.I.A.," Mr. Zenko said.

Article

When the Whole World Has Drones

"The drones—the responsiveness, the persistence, and without putting your personnel at risk—is what makes it a different technology," Zenko said. "When other states have this technology, if they follow U.S. practice, it will lower the threshold for their uses of lethal force outside their borders. So they will be more likely to conduct targeted killings than they have in the past."

Article

Rand Paul Talks His Way Into The Political Big Time

"The filibuster theater was representative of this administration's unwillingness to engage with Congress on targeted killings," says Micah Zenko, a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations who has followed the drone issue closely and wrote a blog post about Paul's filibuster.

Article

How to Behave in Space

Micah Zenko argues that the world needs a code of conduct for behavior in space—and that the United States should take the lead in negotiating one.

Article

Debating Drones, in the Open

"Some 3,500 people have died in 420 strikes, and Congress has yet to hold a single public hearing on this issue," said Micah Zenko, a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. "It has happened in the dark because we have allowed it to, and the press has far and away been the lead actor in surfacing this issue."

Article

Drone Strikes Under Scrutiny

The United States has conducted more than 400 total strikes in at least three countries — Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia — killing more than 3,000 people in its war on Al Qaeda, according to a report by Micah Zenko, a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations.

Article

Open-source Data Contradicts Feinstein on ‘Single-Digit’ Civilian Drone Deaths

In her introductory comments to John Brennan's confirmation hearing to becoming director of central intelligence, Sen. Dianne Feinstein asserted that civilian casualties from U.S. drone strikes now number in the single digits annually. Those numbers are difficult to know with any certainty, and official U.S. estimates are secret. But some organizations do follow open-source reports on the strikes and attempt to track individual civilian casualties. At least some of their numbers, gathered by the scholar Micah Zenko for a Council on Foreign Relations report, appear to contradict Feinstein's assessment.

Article

Brennan Faces Drone Attack from Senators

Micah Zenko at the Council on Foreign Relations believes that political pressure is now going to mount over drones, just as it once did for Mr. Bush over torture and wiretapping, leaving the Obama administration a choice between "drone policy reforms by design or drone policy reforms by default".

Article

Brennan’s Confirmation and Where CIA Drones Go From Here

Micah Zenko, a Council on Foreign Relations Douglas Dillon Fellow who wrote a 2013 special report on drones, notes drones did not come up in hearings for previous CIA directors Michael Hayden or Leon Panetta.

Article

Senators, John Brennan Brace for National Security Showdown in CIA Hearing

But Zenko cautioned against those who would head into the Brennan hearing with high hopes for new information. Having read transcripts of the past 10 CIA director confirmation hearings, he said, "It would be unprecedented if there were an in-depth discussion about ongoing covert activities." The Senate Intelligence Committee "simply doesn't work that way, especially under chairman Sen. (Dianne) Feinstein" of California, he said.

Article

Propaganda Programs Hard to Justify, Panetta Says

"The Pentagon has an obligation to the American people, and the world, to provide information and tell its story — if nothing else to counter myths and misinformation," Zenko said in an e-mail. "But it should only do so in an open and transparent way. Using third-party contractors to shape public opinion is dishonest and unethical."

Article

U.S. Drone Strategy Draws Home-grown Criticism Over Lack of Transparency

The report's author, Micah Zenko, also urged an end to controversial "signature strikes" that kill supposed militants based on what they are observed doing and whose company they keep. Instead, he wrote, attacks should be limited to identified "leaders of transnational terrorist organisations and individuals with direct involvement in past or continuing plots against the United States and its allies".

Article

Grading Professor Hagel

Writers like George Friedman and Robert D. Kaplan don't really care about human institutions as much as geopolitics. He also assigned some interesting work by Joseph Parent & Paul McDonald, as well as Micah Zenko & Michael Cohen, on strategic restraint and threat inflation, respectively.

Article

Targeted Killings: Obama’s Endless War

"In many ways, Brennan is a paradox: a devout Catholic who apparently opposes 'enhanced interrogations,' the death penalty at home, and those inside the government who want to expand the targeted-killing program further," said Micah Zenko.

Article

Ten Questions for Chuck Hagel

Bonus follow-up on drones: "Same question: are we setting an equally dangerous precedent here? And do you agree with critics who say that current drone strikes are often counterproductive because they create as many extremists as they take out?"

Panel

The Future International Security Environment

Micah Zenko is interviewed to discuss "The Future of International Security Environment" at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, with Mathew Burrows, Michael S. Chase, and Peter W. Singer.

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Article

Armed Drones Could Target President: Former U.S. Intelligence Chief

Blair said the Obama administration has only "partly thought through" the repercussions of its expanded drone attack campaign, including the inevitable proliferation of drone technology to other countries and organizations. He spoke Tuesday on a call organized by the Council on Foreign Relations, with senior analyst Micah Zenko.

Article

Former Obama Official Defends Drone Program, Calls For More Transparency

That combination negatively impacts the U.S. mission in the countries it is trying to impact, Zenko argued. "Drones are the face of U.S. foreign policy" in Pakistan and Yemen, he said. "We allow the Taliban, and the Pakistani [intelligence agency], to tell the story of how our drones are being used."

Article

Obama Overseas: Speak Loudly And Carry A Smaller Stick

"It's certainly cheaper," says Micah Zenko, a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations who has studied drone attacks. "The dichotomy the administration puts forward is that we can put 170,000 troops on the ground, or we can do drone strikes."

Article

New U.S. Counterterrorism Guidelines Face Questions

In a telephone conference call Tuesday, former Director of National Intelligence Dennis Blair and Micah Zenko of the Council on Foreign Relations voiced their concerns...ZENKO: "If the United States decides not to apply the playbook to Pakistan it is essentially meaningless because 85 percent of all the targeted killings that the U.S. has conducted in non-battlefield settings since September 11, 2001, have occurred in Pakistan. So the vast majority of targeted killings and drone strikes will not be covered under the playbook."

Article

Pentagon Calls Civilian Casualties "Bug Splat"

Micah Zenko writes in the Council Special Report that the Pentagon and CIA use the term "bug splat" in referring to their civilian collateral damage methodology. T

Article

America is Setting a Dangerous Precedent for the Drone Age

Micah Zenko of the Council of Foreign Relations makes this argument in a new report: A major risk is that of proliferation. Over the next decade, the U.S. near-monopoly on drone strikes will erode as more countries develop and hone this capability. In this uncharted territory, U.S. policy provides a powerful precedent for other states and nonstate actors that will increasingly deploy drones with potentially dangerous ramifications.

Article

Doubts About Drones

"The real reason for most of these strikes has been to protect a regime in Pakistan or Yemen," Zenko said.

Article

Election Spurred a Move to Codify U.S. Drone Policy

"Unless they were about to get on a flight to New York to conduct an attack, they were not an imminent threat to the United States," said Micah Zenko, a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations who is a critic of the strikes. "We don't say that we're the counterinsurgency air force of Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia, but we are."

Video Interview

4 More Drones! Robot Attacks Are on Deck for Obama’s Next Term

"There is a recognition within the administration that the current trajectory of drone strikes is unsustainable," Zenko says. "They are opposed in countries where strikes occur and globally, and that opposition could lead to losing host-nation support for current or future drone bases or over-flight rights."

Article

Most U.S. Drones Openly Broadcast Secret Video Feeds

"If somebody could obtain reliable access to real-time Predator or Reaper video—without attribution or alerting U.S. military—that would a tremendous intel coup," says Micah Zenko, a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations.

Video Interview

Obama Finally Talks Drone War, But It’s Almost Impossible to Believe Him

"What I found most striking was his claim that legitimate targets are a 'threat that is serious and not speculative,' and engaged in 'some operational plot against the United States,' That is simply not true," emails the Council on Foreign Relations' Micah Zenko, who has tracked the drone war as closely as any outside analyst. "The claim that the 3,000+ people killed in roughly 375 nonbattlefield targeted killings were all engaged in actual operational plots against the U.S. defies any understanding of the scope of what America has been doing for the past ten years."

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Video Interview

Obama Neutralizes A Typical Source Of GOP Strength

"There are more mentions of Osama bin Laden than unemployment in the Democratic national platform," says Micah Zenko, a fellow with the Council on Foreign Relations. "You play to what your strengths are."

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Bio

Micah Zenko is the Douglas Dillon Fellow in the Center for Preventive Action (CPA) at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). He currently serves as vice chair of the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council on Terrorism. Previously, he worked for five years at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, and in Washington, DC, at the Brookings Institution, Congressional Research Service, and State Department's Office of Policy Planning.

Dr. Zenko has published on a range of national security issues, including articles in Foreign Affairs, the Journal of Strategic Studies, Defense and Security Analysis, and Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and op-eds in the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, and the New York Times. He writes the blog Politics, Power and Preventive Action, which covers U.S. national security policy, international security, and conflict prevention, and also has a column on ForeignPolicy.org. He tweets at @MicahZenko and was named by Foreign Policy as one of "The FPTwitterati 100" in 2011 and 2012.

He is the author or coauthor of four Council Special Reports (CSRs): Reforming U.S. Drone Strike Policies; Partners in Preventive Action: The United States and International Institutions; Toward Deeper Reductions in U.S. and Russian Nuclear Weapons; and Enhancing U.S. Preventive Action. His book, Between Threats and War: U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World, was published by Stanford University Press.