Another international stabilization, reconstruction and state-building effort on the scale of the recent
efforts in Iraq or Afghanistan is unlikely in the foreseeable future. However, there will continue to be a substantial number of insecure and fragile areas where effective international aid will be needed but difficult to provide. Recent efforts to assess international aid effectiveness in fragile states have provided a framework of general principles and have begun the difficult work of assessing donors' efforts according to those principles. In addition, scholars and practitioners have recently begun to question more basic assumptions about aid in insurgency environments--that is, whether aid actually has the effect of promoting stability.
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