Conflict in Kurdish-Dominated Regions
Resumption of conflict in the Kurdish-dominated regions of Turkey and the Middle East
Kurdish areas of the greater Middle East and Turkey could experience intense violence and instability as a result of Islamist militants’ gains in Iraq and the ongoing civil war in Syria.
The al-Qaeda–inspired Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has advanced toward the autonomous Kurdish region of northern Iraq and could threaten its capital, Erbil. Despite significant support from Baghdad and armed Kurdish groups from Syria, Turkey, and Iran, as well as covert military aid provided by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Iraqi Kurdish forces have suffered significant losses. In August 2014, the United States carried out airstrikes on ISIS militants who had forced an estimated 40,000 Kurdish Yazidis to flee to the Sinjar Mountains. With the help of Kurdish fighters, thousands of Yazidis escaped to safety.
In Syria, the Democratic Union Party (PYD) has forged ties with the militant Kurdish Workers Party (PKK), which seeks to establish an autonomous state under the pretext of Syria’s civil war. Syrian Kurds—which constitute about 10 percent of Syria’s population and control a large area of northern Syria—have been fighting the central government in the ongoing civil war and have now secured definitive control of the Kurdish area of northern Syria.
If the Kurds succeed in establishing an autonomous state amid the chaos gripping Iraq and Syria, secessionist movements in other Kurdish areas of the Middle East could accelerate, intensifying ongoing sectarian conflicts in the region.
In Turkey, peace talks between the government and the PKK have stalled since a ceasefire began in March 2013. PKK members are refusing to withdraw from Turkey to Kurdish Iraq.
The United States is deeply interested in restoring stability in Iraq, Syria, and Kurdish areas and maintaining the territorial integrity of states in the region. Heightened terrorist activity by Kurdish separatists is also a growing concern for the United States, which has designated the PKK a foreign terrorist organization.
- 6 Essential Facts About Iraq’s Kurds
Zack Beauchamp, Vox
updated August 12, 2014
- The United States, Turkey, and the Kurdish Regions: The Peace Process in Context
Michael Werz and Max Hoffman, Center for American Progress
July 31, 2014
- The Realpolitik of Turkish-Kurdish Energy Cooperation
Ozan Serdaroglu, Middle East Eye
July 24, 2014
- In Iraq’s Disputed Territory, Minorities are Embracing Kurdish Control
Jason Motlagh, Washington Post
July 14, 2014
- Revenge of the Kurds II
Keith Johnson, Foreign Policy
July 11, 2014
- Kurdish Independence: Harder Than It Looks
Joost Hiltermann, New York Review of Books
July 10, 2014
- The Iraq Crisis is Worse Than it Seems for the Kurds
Cale Salih, New York Times
June 22, 2014
- The Rise of ISIS, a Golden Opportunity for Iraq’s Kurds
Sirwan Kajjo, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
June 19, 2014
- How the Kurds Got Their Way
Marina Ottaway and David Ottaway, Foreign Affairs
- Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)
Greg Bruno, CFR.org Backgrounder
- The Iraqi Kurdish Question
Lionel Beehner, CFR.org Backgrounder
- Evaluating U.S. Options for Iraq
Stephen Biddle, House Armed Services Committee
July 29, 2014
- Foreign Affairs Media Call on Iraq and ISIS
Steven Simon and Gideon Rose, Council on Foreign Relations
June 23, 2014
- How have Iraqi Kurdish authorities responded to the Syrian civil war?
Steven A. Cook, CFR.org Ask CFR Experts
November 18, 2013