Civil War in South Sudan
Protracted civil war in South Sudan stemming from political and ethnic divisions
Tens of thousands of people have been killed and more than 1.6 million have been internally displaced since civil war broke out in South Sudan in December 2013. Under the threat of international sanctions and following several rounds of negotiations supported by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), President Salva Kiir signed a peace agreement with rebel leader and former Vice President Riek Machar on August 26.
The latest deal remains fragile, as clashes continue and both sides have blamed the other for violating the cease-fire. After the leaders failed to reach an agreement by the deadline in March 2015, South Sudanese lawmakers again postponed elections and extended President Kiir’s term; elections are now slated for 2018. The peace talks, which began in January 2014, have resulted in several agreements, but both parties to the conflict and other splintering factions repeatedly violate the cease-fires.
Armed groups, including the government’s Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), have committed widespread violence against civilians, especially women and children, humanitarian workers, and peacekeepers. As of July 2015, more than 166,000 people are seeking protection on UN bases, which have become displacement-like settlements known as Protection of Civilian sites, in areas such as Bentiu, Juba, and Malakal.
Ignited by a political struggle between Salva Kiir and Riek Machar, violence erupted between presidential guard soldiers in December 2013 and immediately took on an ethnic character. Soldiers from the Dinka ethnic group, one of the two largest ethnic groups in South Sudan, aligned with President Kiir and those from the Nuer ethnic group, the other largest ethnic group, supported Riek Machar. In the midst of chaos, President Kiir announced that Machar had attempted a coup and violence spread quickly to Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Unity states. Since the outbreak of conflict, armed groups have targeted civilians along ethnic lines, committed rape and sexual violence, destroyed property and looted villages, and recruited children into their ranks.
Violence has prevented farmers from planting or harvesting crops, causing food shortages nationwide. In July 2014, the UN Security Council declared South Sudan’s food crisis the worst in the world. It warned that some four million people—a third of South Sudan’s population—could be affected and up to fifty thousand children could die of hunger.
In late December 2013, the UN Security Council authorized a rapid deployment of about 6,000 security forces, in addition to 7,600 peacekeepers already in the country, to aid in nation building efforts. In May 2014, the Security Council voted in a rare move to shift the mission’s mandate from nation building to civilian protection, authorizing UN troops to use force. Since reprioritizing protection, the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan has faced extreme challenges due to the deterioration of the security situation and its complex relationship with the government of the Republic of South Sudan, which is a belligerent to the conflict.
The United States was a lead facilitator of South Sudanese independence, which was voted for in a 2011 referendum that was held in the southern part of Sudan, excluding the contested area of Abyei, providing diplomatic support and humanitarian aid. Prior to the outbreak of the civil war in 2013, the United States strongly supported and advocated for Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), which became the new country’s government. However, the United States has taken a back seat in peace talks as IGAD mediates between Kiir and Machar. The United States and Europe have imposed sanctions on commanders from both sides, but diplomats say real pressure for a deal to be implemented must come from neighboring states.
- Independent South Sudan: A Failure of Leadership
December 10, 2015
- South Sudan needs arms embargo; leaders killing civilians - U.N. panel
Louis Charbonneau and Michelle Nichols
January 26, 2016
- South Sudan marks two years of ruinous war
December 15, 2015
- No Money, No Peace
Alex de Waal
December 2, 2015
- South Sudan Monitors Demand Aid for Starvation Areas
January 12, 2016
- Two Rationales for Imposing Sanctions on South Sudan
Alex de Waal
August 24, 2015
- Lords of the Tribes: The Real Roots of the Conflict in South Sudan
Andrew S. Natsios
- World Report 2015: South Sudan
- JMEC Report to the African Union Peace and Security Council
Chairperson of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission
January 29, 2016
- South Sudan
- United Nations Mission In South Sudan
- U.S. Relations With South Sudan
September 16, 2015
- United Nations Documents on UNMISS
- Republic of South Sudan
- Resolution 2206 (2015)
March 3, 2015
- South Sudan Sanctions
March 3, 2015
- South Sudan
- Resolution 2156
United Nations Security Council
May 29, 2014
- Peace Operations in Africa
- President Obama Discusses South Sudan in Addis
July 28, 2015
- Enhancing U.S. Support for Peace Operations in Africa
Paul D. Williams, CFR Council Special Report