Historically, biological warfare represented the most explicit, and perhaps the only, intersection between health and security. That framework, however, produced a very narrow characterization of the health-security nexus. Today, the relationship between global health and regional security can be examined through the lens of three security frameworks: human security, national security, and international security. First, health problems represent direct threats to several important components of the human security of individuals as defined by the United Nations Development Programme, including personal security (due to the premature loss of life and the stigma and violence associated with certain health conditions), health security (because of the additional burden health problems place on healthcare systems), economic security (as households and individuals experience a reduced earning capacity and a reduction in spending on nonfood items due to medical care costs and other related expenditures), and food security (by negatively affcting the ability of certain individuals or households to secure access to food).
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