Deforestation, peatland degradation, and forest fires have put Indonesia among the top three largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world. Emissions resulting from deforestation and forest fires are five times those from non‐forestry emissions. Emissions from energy and industrial sectors are relatively small, but are growing very rapidly.
At the same time, Indonesia stands to experience significant losses with climate change. Being an archipelago, Indonesia is very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Prolonged droughts, increased frequency in extreme weather events, and heavy rainfall leading to big floods, are a few examples of the impacts of climate change. The inundation of some parts of the country, for instance Jakarta Bay, has come to pass; Indonesia’s rich biodiversity is also at risk. In turn, this may lead to harmful effects on agriculture, fishery and forestry, resulting in threats to food security and livelihoods.