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Foreign Affairs Article

The Plunder of Africa

Author: Howard W. French

Discussions about the fate of Africa have long had a cyclical quality. That is especially the case when it comes to the question of how to explain the region’s persistent underdevelopment. At times, the dominant view has stressed the importance of centuries of exploitation by outsiders, from the distant past all the way to the present. 

See more in Africa (sub-Saharan); Development

Foreign Affairs Article

Holier Than Thou

Author: James Monroe

Americans have been arguing about the role of religion in government since the earliest days of the republic. In 1789, soon after taking office, President George Washington declared a day of “public thanksgiving and prayer.”

See more in United States; Religion

Foreign Affairs Article

Hired Guns

Author: Allison Stranger

In 2008, the actress and activist Mia Farrow approached the private security company Blackwater and some human rights organizations with a proposition: Might it be possible to hire private military contractors to end the genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan?

See more in United States; Defense and Security

Foreign Affairs Article

What Caused the Crash?

Author: Athanasios Orphanides

Crises are an inevitable outgrowth of the modern capitalist economy. So argues Martin Wolf, chief economics commentator for the Financial Times, in his authoritative account of the 2008 financial crisis. Instability reveals itself in the form of shocks; even a seemingly small deviation from the norm can set off a major crisis.

See more in United States; Financial Crises

Foreign Affairs Article

Fear of Flying

Authors: Robert Matthews, Daniel L. Johnson, and Gretchen West

Better safe than sorry. Gretchen West (“Drone On,” May/ June 2015) argues that the growing U.S. drone industry “faces a major regulatory obstacle” in the form of the Federal Aviation Administration. She’s right that the agency needs to make some basic decisions about how to regulate drones—and soon, lest the United States surrender its technological edge.

See more in United States; Drones

Foreign Affairs Article

The End of Reform in China

Author: You Wei

Since the start of its post-Mao reforms in the late 1970s, the communist regime in China has repeatedly defied predictions of its impending demise. The key to its success lies in what one might call “authoritarian adaptation”—the use of policy reforms to substitute for fundamental institutional change. 

See more in China; Regime Changes

Foreign Affairs Article

Embracing China's "New Normal"

Author: Hu Angang

It is clear by now that China’s economy is set to slow in the years to come, although economists disagree about how much and for how long. Last year, the country’s GDP growth rate fell to 7.4 percent, the lowest in almost a quarter century, and many expect that figure to drop further in 2015. Plenty of countries struggle to grow at even this pace, but most don’t have to create hundreds of millions of jobs over the next decade, as China will.

See more in China; Economics

Foreign Affairs Article

China's Dangerous Debt

Author: Zhiwu Chen

In September 2008, when Chinese President Hu Jintao got word that Lehman Brothers, then the fourth-largest U.S. investment bank, was on the verge of bankruptcy, he was traveling by van along the bumpy roads of Shaanxi Province. Surrounded by policy advisers and members of the Politburo, Hu asked them how China should respond to the inevitable spillover.

See more in China; Budget, Debt, and Deficits

Foreign Affairs Article

China Will Get Rich Before It Grows Old

Author: Baozhen Luo

At a conference on the Chinese economy in 2012, Cai Fang, a demographer at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, issued a dire warning: “There’s now no doubt China will be old before it is rich.” He was expressing a view widely held by economists and China watchers. Over the past 65 years, life expectancy in China has more than doubled, from 35 years to roughly 75, as the fertility rate has plunged. Many fear that if these trends continue, China’s population will age faster than the country can accommodate.

See more in China; Population

Foreign Affairs Article

Xi's Corruption Crackdown

Author: James Leung

In a series of speeches he delivered shortly after taking office in 2012, Chinese President Xi Jinping cast corruption as not merely a significant problem for his country but an existential threat. Endemic corruption, he warned, could lead to “the collapse of the [Chinese Communist] Party and the downfall of the state.”

See more in China; Corruption and Bribery

Foreign Affairs Article

China’s Race Problem

Author: Gray Tuttle

For all the tremendous change China has experienced in recent decades—phenomenal economic growth, improved living standards, and an ascent to great-power status—the country has made little progress when it comes to the treatment of its ethnic minorities, most of whom live in China’s sparsely populated frontier regions.

See more in China; Ethnicity, Minorities, and National Identity

Foreign Affairs Article

Europe's Shattered Dream of Order

Authors: Ivan Krastev and Mark Leonard

Until recently, most Europeans believed that their post–Cold War security order held universal appeal and could be a model for the rest of the world. This conviction was hardly surprising, since Europe has often played a central role in global affairs. For much of the last three centuries, European order was world order—a product of the interests, ambitions, and rivalries of the continent’s empires.

See more in Europe; Wars and Warfare

Foreign Affairs Article

In Defense of Financial Innovation

Author: Andrew Palmer

At a 2013 conference held by The Economist in New York, business and policy leaders debated whether talented university graduates should join Google or Goldman Sachs. Vivek Wadhwa, a serial entrepreneur, spoke up for Google. “Would you rather have your children engineering the financial system [and] creating more problems for us, or having a chance of saving the world?” he asked.

See more in United States; Economics