Economics

Foreign Affairs Article

Reforming Nigeria

Author: Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala

Born to professors in what was then still a British colony, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala was a teenager when civil war broke out in Nigeria seven years after independence, and she ended up working as a cook for the Biafran rebels on the frontlines.

See more in Nigeria; International Finance

Foreign Affairs Article

Putin's Lehman Moment

Author: Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn argues that the West should be ready to impose more robust economic sanctions against Russia, in order to deter it from further infiltrating or destabilizing Ukraine. Russia's economic complexity means sanctions would meaningfully reduce Russian wealth and growth, since Russian oligarchs and business leaders have significant financial stakes in the West.

See more in Russia and Central Asia; Sanctions

Foreign Affairs Article

NAFTA's Unfinished Business

Author: Michael Wilson

In 1992, when Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney sat down with Mexican President Carlos Salinas and U.S. President George H. W. Bush to sign the North American Free Trade Agreement, free trade was still a matter of fierce national debate in Canadian politics.

See more in Canada; Trade

Foreign Affairs Article

Iceland's Saga

Author: Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson

By all rights, Iceland -- a remote Arctic island inhabited by just 320,000 people -- should be a forgotten backwater. And for most of its history, it was.

See more in Iceland; Economics

Foreign Affairs Article

Blind Oracle

Author: Richard Katz

In his recent essay "Never Saw It Coming" (November/December 2013), Alan Greenspan makes two central arguments: first, that virtually no one foresaw the 2008 U.S. financial crisis and, second, that irrational "animal spirits" were the root cause.

See more in United States; Financial Crises

Foreign Affairs Article

Never Saw It Coming

Author: Alan Greenspan

The former chair of the U.S. Federal Reserve asks how so many experts, including him, failed to see the 2008 financial crisis approaching. An important part of the answer to that question is a very old idea: Keynesian "animal spirits," the irrational elements of decisionmaking that have been left out of economic forecasting for too long.

See more in United States; Financial Crises

Foreign Affairs Article

Bridge to Somewhere

Author: Jose W. Fernandez

International development has moved beyond charity. Gone are the days when the United States would just spend its seemingly bottomless largess to help less fortunate or vanquished countries, as it did after World War II.

See more in United States; Infrastructure

Foreign Affairs Article

Mutual Assured Production

Author: Richard Katz

Tensions between China and Japan are rising, but an economic version of mutual deterrence is preserving the uneasy status quo. Put simply, China needs to buy Japanese products as much as Japan needs to sell them.

See more in China; Japan; Trade

Foreign Affairs Article

Fake It Till You Make It

Authors: Kal Raustiala and Christopher Sprigman

Given that Chinese counterfeiting has benefits as well as costs, and considering China's historical resistance to Western pressure, trying to push China to change its approach to intellectual property law is not worth the political and diplomatic capital the United States is spending on it.

See more in China; Intellectual Property

Foreign Affairs Article

The Second Great Depression

Author: Bradford DeLong

The global economic downturn is hardly over, and without a more dramatic set of actions, the United States is likely to suffer another major crisis in the years ahead. A new book by Alan Blinder may be the best general volume on the recession to date, but it paints an overly optimistic portrait of the current situation.

See more in United States; Financial Crises