Courts and Tribunals

Primary Sources

International Criminal Court's Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes

The International Criminal Court (ICC) published this policy paper in June 2014 to provide guidance in prosecuting "various forms of sexual and gender-based crimes — including rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilisation, and other forms of sexual violence — as underlying acts of both crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in international and non-international armed conflicts."

See more in Global; Violence Against Women; Courts and Tribunals


Timeline: Leaders Facing Justice

Author: Brianna Lee

Since 1945, many leaders have been brought before courts to answer to charges including genocide, corruption, and crimes against humanty in an effort to promote and enfore the rule of law. This timeline highlights some of these trials.

See more in Global; Courts and Tribunals

Foreign Affairs Article

The Long Arm of International Law

Author: Pierre N. Leval

Thanks to a once-obscure law passed in 1789, foreign victims of foreign human rights abusers can use U.S. courts to sue their abusers. But the Supreme Court may soon ban such suits. That would be a shame, since they offer victims some measure of solace and give substance to underenforced human rights laws. The law should be upheld, and other countries should follow the U.S. lead.

See more in Courts and Tribunals; Human Rights; Global


The Synthesis of Law and Politics and the Evolution of International Justice

Speakers: John B. Bellinger III and David J. Scheffer
Presider: Jeffrey Toobin

Ambassador David Scheffer and former State Department legal adviser John Bellinger discuss how international justice over the last two decades has affected international politics, including the U.S. role in assisting local war crimes prosecutions in Libya and elsewhere.

See more in United States; Courts and Tribunals; Libya


Bracing for Indictments in Lebanon

Michael Young interviewed by Bernard Gwertzman

Pending indictments in a UN tribunal could link Hezbollah and Syria to the death of former Lebanese prime minister Rafik Hariri. Lebanon expert Michael Young says all sides, including Saudi Arabia and the U.S., are scrambling to deal with the impact of the findings.


See more in Courts and Tribunals; Lebanon