Courts and Tribunals

Other Report

Toward an International Criminal Court?

Authors: Ruth Wedgwood, Anne-Marie Slaughter, John R. Bolton, and Kenneth Roth

Backed by strong international support, the formation of a permanent International Criminal Court (ICC) will soon replace the use of ad hoc tribunals such as those for Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The United States, originally a proponent of the ICC treaty negotiated in Rome in 1998, now stands with the small minority opposing the ICC. With the court likely to come into existence, the terms of U.S. participation in the treaty are now a vital question.

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Primary Sources

International Criminal Court's Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes

The International Criminal Court (ICC) published this policy paper in June 2014 to provide guidance in prosecuting "various forms of sexual and gender-based crimes — including rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilisation, and other forms of sexual violence — as underlying acts of both crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in international and non-international armed conflicts."

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Primary Sources

Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights

The UNHCR website states, "Adopted on the 1 July 2008, the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights merges the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights and the Court of Justice of the African Union into one single court (Article 2). The Protocol, thus, replaces the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights (adopted in 1998) and the Protocol of the Court of Justice of the African Union (adopted in 2003) (Article 1). The Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights is contained in the annex to the Protocol."

See more in Human Rights; Africa (sub-Saharan); Courts and Tribunals