Backed by strong international support, the formation of a permanent International Criminal Court (ICC) will soon replace the use of ad hoc tribunals such as those for Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The United States, originally a proponent of the ICC treaty negotiated in Rome in 1998, now stands with the small minority opposing the ICC. With the court likely to come into existence, the terms of U.S. participation in the treaty are now a vital question.
Podcast: A veteran reporter discusses a war crimes tribunal trying members of Cambodia's Khmer Rouge regime.
The Charter of the International Military Tribunal, also known as the the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal, was signed in London on August 8, 1945.
The International Criminal Court provides this fact sheet on current situations and cases.
The UNHCR website states, "Adopted on the 1 July 2008, the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights merges the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights and the Court of Justice of the African Union into one single court (Article 2). The Protocol, thus, replaces the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights (adopted in 1998) and the Protocol of the Court of Justice of the African Union (adopted in 2003) (Article 1). The Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights is contained in the annex to the Protocol."
The UN Security Council decided through this resolution of March 31, 2005 to “refer the situation prevailing in Darfur since 1 July 2002 to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court”.
The Protocol of the Court of Justice of the African Union was adopted by the African Union at it's assembly in Maputo on July 11, 2003.
UN Security Council Resolution 1422 regarding the ICC was adopted on July 12, 2002.
UN Security Council Resolution 827 was adopted on May 25, 1993. It established the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (full name: International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991).
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