UN Security Council Resolution 1422 regarding the ICC was adopted on July 12, 2002.
The Rome Statute established the International Criminal Court as a “permanent institution that shall have the power to exercise its jurisdiction over persons for the most serious crimes of international concern.” It was adopted on July 17, 1998 and entered into force on July 1, 2002. The statute's Elements of Crime was updated in 2010 to aid the ICC in interpreting crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.
Backed by strong international support, the formation of a permanent International Criminal Court (ICC) will soon replace the use of ad hoc tribunals such as those for Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The United States, originally a proponent of the ICC treaty negotiated in Rome in 1998, now stands with the small minority opposing the ICC. With the court likely to come into existence, the terms of U.S. participation in the treaty are now a vital question.
UN Security Council Resolution 827 was adopted on May 25, 1993. It established the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (full name: International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991).
The Iraqi Criminal Procedure Code Number 23 of 1971 was published in the Iraqi official gazette (Alwaqai Aliraqiya) on May 31, 1971. The code supplemented the Iraqi Special Tribunal procedural law and Rules of Procedures, in the Saddam Hussein trial.
The Charter of the International Military Tribunal, also known as the the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal, was signed in London on August 8, 1945. It was established directly following the end of World War II and was designed for "the just and prompt trial and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis."
See more in Courts and Tribunals
The Convention for the Establishment of the Central American Court of Justice was signed by Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Salvador on December 20, 1907.
Williams argues that the status quo for peace operations in untenable and that greater U.S. involvement is necessary to enhance the quality and success of peacekeeping missions.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Red Team provides an in-depth investigation into the work of red teams, revealing the best practices, most common pitfalls, and most effective applications of these modern-day devil's advocates. More
Ashley's War tells the poignant and gripping story of a groundbreaking team of female American warriors who served alongside Special Operations soldiers in Afghanistan. More
Smith's insightful book explores the policy issues testing the Japanese government as it tries to navigate its relationship with an advancing China. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2015 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
Read and download »