Cyber weapons are different from conventional weapons in that their effects do not directly manifest themselves in the "real world." There are three broad categories of potential effects of cyberattacks: personal, economic, and physical.
In 2009 the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence (NATO CCD COE) asked a panel of international law experts to "apply standards of international law to a virtual battlefield." The panel released this report on March 28, 2013, as "an expression of opinions of a group of independent experts acting solely in their personal capacity."
"APT1 is a single organization of operators that has conducted a cyber espionage campaign against a broad range of victims since at least 2006. From our observations, it is one of the most prolific cyber espionage groups in terms of the sheer quantity of information stolen."
Adam Segal says the recent Chinese cyberattacks on Bloomberg and the New York Timeshighlights both the willingness of Beijing to shape the narrative about China, as well as the vulnerability the top leadership feels about how they are portrayed.
Blake Clayton argues that cyber attacks on oil and gas operations are the new face of energy insecurity, with vast potential for crippling effects on global energy prices and nations far beyond the Middle East.
On June 6, 2012, Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano announced the formation of
Task Force on CyberSkills, which would "identify the best ways DHS can foster the development of a national security workforce capable of meeting current and future cybersecurity challenges; and second, to outline how DHS can improve its capability to recruit and retain that sophisticated cybersecurity talent."
Published in December 2011 and amended in August 2012, the Department of Homeland Security proposed a framework for ethical guidelines for computer and information security research. The framework was informed by the three principles of the 1979 Belmont Report for ethical research in the biomedical and behavioral sciences, Respect for Persons, Beneficence, and Justice. The Menlo Report adds the principle Respect for Law and Public Interest.
With incidence of severe cybersecurity breaches increasing, govenment and business leaders are forced to re-evaluate control computer systems and heighten defences against hackers, writes Robert O'Harrow Jr. in the Washington Post.
Government and business leaders in the United States and around the world are rushing to build better defenses -- and to prepare for the coming battles in the digital universe, writes Robert O'Harrow Jr. at the Washington Post. To succeed, they must understand one of the most complex, man-made environments on Earth: cyberspace.
This report argues that the lack of sustained attention to energy issues is undercutting U.S. foreign policy and national security.
CFR Experts Guide
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Koblentz argues that the United States should work with other nuclear-armed states to manage threats to nuclear stability in the near term and establish processes for multilateral arms control efforts over the longer term.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »