Other Report

Developing a Proportionate Response to a Cyber Incident

Author: Tobias Feakin

As offensive cyber activity becomes more prevalent, policymakers will be challenged to develop proportionate responses to disruptive or destructive attacks. Tobias Feakin outlines the variables that each state should consider in determining the appropriate response to a state-sponsored cyber incident.

See more in Global; Cybersecurity

Other Report

Countering Islamic State Exploitation of the Internet

Author: David P. Fidler

The use of social media and other Internet-enabled communications by the self-proclaimed Islamic State is pushing the United States and other democracies to react to the abuse of liberal freedoms by illiberal forces. CFR Visiting Fellow David P. Fidler outlines ways to counter the Islamic State's online onslaught through policies anchored in free speech, transparency, and accountability. 

See more in Syria; Iraq; Cybersecurity; Internet Policy

Primary Sources

Cybersecurity Law of the People's Republic of China

National People's Congress of China released this draft text on July 6, 2015, and it will be available for public comment through August 2015. The law outlines the Chinese government's goals for security standards for technical systems, networks, and user data. It requires companies with operations in China to comply with government requests for regulating and restricting technology use. See also the broader National Security Law passed on July 1, 2015.

See more in China; Cybersecurity; Internet Policy

Primary Sources

Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace

The first Department of Defense strategy report on cyberspace was released on July 14, 2011 and an update to the strategy was released April 23, 2015. The strategy outlines the three missions in the cyber domain: to defend Department of Defense networks, systems, and information; to defend the U.S. homeland and U.S. national interests against cyberattacks of significant consequence; and to provide integrated cyber capabilities to support military operations and contingency plans.

See more in Cybersecurity; United States

Primary Sources

United States of America v. Members of China's People's Liberation Army

The U.S. Department of Justice announced the indictment of five Chinese military hackers on May 19, 2014. Wang Dong, Sun Kailiang, Wen Xinyu, Huang Zhenyu, and Gu Chunhui were charged with computer hacking, economic espionage and other offenses directed at Americans in the nuclear power, metals, and solar products industries.

See more in United States; China; Cybersecurity; Intellectual Property

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Executive Order and Framework: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

President Barack Obama ordered on February 12, 2013 that the U.S. government work with "owners and operators of critical infrastructure" to share information about cyber threats and attacks and to implement common cybersecurity standards. A year later, on February 12, 2014, the National Institute for Standards and Technology issued the framework for improving cybersecurity.

See more in United States; Cybersecurity; Digital Infrastructure

Primary Sources

Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community

Annually, the Director of National Intelligence testifies before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and before the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence to discuss the current and potential threats to United States' security and priorities for the Department of Defense budget. The assessment usually covers terrorism threats, cyber attacks, counterintelligence, proliferation, mass atrocities, regional and country-by-country threats, and other state and non state intelligence threats such as health threats, water security and transnational crime.

See more in United States; Cybersecurity; Intelligence

Primary Sources

House Resolution 624, Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act (CISPA)

The House of Representatives introduced CISPA on February 13, 2013 and passed it on April 18, 2013. The full title is "to provide for the sharing of certain cyber threat intelligence and cyber threat information between the intelligence community and cybersecurity entities, and for other purposes." Related acts include Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), PROTECT IP Act (PIPA), and Online Protection and Enforcement of Digital Trade Act (OPEN Act).

See more in United States; Cybersecurity; Intelligence

Primary Sources

Homeland Security Advisory Council: Cyber Skills Task Force Report

On June 6, 2012, Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano announced the formation of
Task Force on CyberSkills, which would "identify the best ways DHS can foster the development of a national security workforce capable of meeting current and future cybersecurity challenges; and second, to outline how DHS can improve its capability to recruit and retain that sophisticated cybersecurity talent."

See more in United States; Cybersecurity; Labor