How Does Israel Regulate Encryption?

Authors: Matthew C. Waxman and Doron Hindin

Recent terrorist attacks and resulting questions about the limits of surveillance have rekindled debate about how governments should deal with the challenges of powerful, commercially available encryption. With active debate in the United States and Western Europe surrounding this issue, it is instructive to note that Israel has been regulating encryption for decades.

See more in Israel; Cybersecurity


The Hacked World Order

Author: Adam Segal

Beginning with the Stuxnet virus launched by the US at an Iranian nuclear facility in 2010 and continuing through to the most recent Sony hacking scandal, A Hacked World Order exposes how the internet has ushered in a new era of geopolitical maneuvering and reveals the tremendous and terrifying implications for our economic livelihood, security, and personal identity.

See more in Global; Cybersecurity; Technology and Foreign Policy

News Release

The Gaps in Global Internet Governance Are Growing, According to New CFR Interactive

With over 40 percent of the world's population now online, the Internet has revolutionized the way the world communicates. But with fast evolving technology, a proliferation of actors with access to the Internet, and an absence of international consensus on what should be permissible, the gap between existing world arrangements and the challenges posed by the Internet is in fact widening.

See more in Global; Global Governance; Cybersecurity

Other Report

Developing a Proportionate Response to a Cyber Incident

Author: Tobias Feakin

As offensive cyber activity becomes more prevalent, policymakers will be challenged to develop proportionate responses to disruptive or destructive attacks. Tobias Feakin outlines the variables that each state should consider in determining the appropriate response to a state-sponsored cyber incident.

See more in Global; Cybersecurity

Primary Sources

Cybersecurity Law of the People's Republic of China

National People's Congress of China released this draft text on July 6, 2015, and it will be available for public comment through August 2015. The law outlines the Chinese government's goals for security standards for technical systems, networks, and user data. It requires companies with operations in China to comply with government requests for regulating and restricting technology use. See also the broader National Security Law passed on July 1, 2015.

See more in China; Cybersecurity; Internet Policy

Other Report

Countering Islamic State Exploitation of the Internet

Author: David P. Fidler

The use of social media and other Internet-enabled communications by the self-proclaimed Islamic State is pushing the United States and other democracies to react to the abuse of liberal freedoms by illiberal forces. CFR Visiting Fellow David P. Fidler outlines ways to counter the Islamic State's online onslaught through policies anchored in free speech, transparency, and accountability. 

See more in Syria; Iraq; Cybersecurity; Internet Policy