Egypt's 2011 revolution marks the latest chapter in Egyptians' longtime struggle for greater democratic freedoms. In this video, Steven A. Cook, CFR's Hasib J. Sabbagh senior fellow for Middle Eastern studies and author of "The Struggle for Egypt", identifies the lessons that Egypt's emerging leadership must learn from the Nasser, Sadat, and Mubarak regimes.
The establishment and deepening of a democratic culture is a long-term project and is intergenerational. As divisions open up, the events of 2011 across the Middle East and North Africa represent a powerful first step in a larger process of transformation.
The assassination of Afghan government negotiator Burhanuddin Rabbani signals the challenges in any reconciliation talks with the Taliban and could exacerbate ethnic divisions, pushing the country into a civil war.
As rebels try to strengthen their hold on Tripoli, the odds of a peaceful, democratic transfer of power in Libya are long and the need for ongoing international intervention is very likely, says CFR's Robert Danin.
The recent flare up of hostilities along the Israel-Egypt border signals a hardening of Egypt's stance toward Israel and further difficulties for the sluggish Mideast peace process, says expert David Makovsky.
The trial of former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak has sparked a debate in Egypt about retributive justice versus the rule of law, which will be among the many issues to play out in the fall's parliamentary elections, says CFR's Steven A. Cook.
Amb. Zalmay Khalilzad, former U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan, Iraq, and the United Nations, discusses democracy promotion in the Middle East following the Arab Spring with Mark Lagon, Adjunct Senior Fellow for Human Rights at the Council on Foreign Relations.
In a piece for the Weekly Standard, Ellen Bork writes that Washington needs to revive its relations with Cairo in order to reignite the transition from dictatorship to democracy that has stalled in Egypt since Mubarak ceded power more than three months ago.
In an op-ed for the Financial Times, Philip Stephens writes that President Obama has a choice to make, either he can be a part of shaping the policy for the Arab world or he can continue to merely comment on it.
With Israel facing a regional democratization movement, a unity pact between Hamas and Fatah, and a possible UN vote on Palestinian statehood in the fall, Prime Minister Netanyahu should offer a swap of territory in return for Palestinian acceptance of a Jewish state, says Israel expert David Makovsky.
Maciej Bartkowski and Annyssa Bellal write that the international community needs a more comprehensive set of guidelines to keep governments accountable for violence conducted against demonstrating citizens.
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.
The author examines Pakistan's complex role in U.S. foreign policy and advocates for a two-pronged approach that works to quarantine threats while integrating Pakistan into the broader U.S. agenda in Asia.