housands of years ago, agriculture began as a highly site-specific activity. The first farmers were gardeners who nurtured individual plants, and they sought out the microclimates and patches of soil that favored those plants. But as farmers acquired scientific knowledge and mechanical expertise, they enlarged their plots, using standardized approaches—plowing the soil, spreading animal manure as fertilizer, rotating the crops from year to year—to boost crop yields.
The potential chaos highlighted by a 2011 Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) Contingency Planning Memorandum, "Post-Qaddafi Instability in Libya," has come to fruition. Daniel P. Serwer outlines the unfolding crisis and recommends steps the United States, Europe, and Arab countries can take to help mitigate the fallout.
Short Description: Catherine Powell hosts a discussion with UN Women’s Nahla Valji on the landmark UN Security Council resolution recognizing the role of women in peace and security matters and the U.S. role in implementing it.
The United States and China have developed competing visions for reviving ancient trade routes connecting Asia and Europe. The U.S. diplomatic strategy focuses on Afghanistan, while China hopes to economically integrate Central and South Asia. India and Russia also have regional ambitions.
On September 22, 2010, President Barack signed a Presidential Policy Directive on Global Development, or the U.S. Global Development Policy, which calls for "the elevation of development as a core pillar of American power and charts a course for development, diplomacy and defense to mutually reinforce and complement one another in an integrated comprehensive approach to national security." In 2012, the Global Development Council was established and in 2014, it produced its first report of recommendations for implementing the U.S. Global Development Policy.
These rankings include datasets and studies which track the status of a country and compare countries based on different indicators, in the areas of conflict, economics, education, energy, environment, health, human rights, politics, and technology. Critiques of these types of indexes are included, describing why they can be detrimental to development progress and how comparison exercises could be improved.
As a relatively new field, gender in macroeconomics suffers from incomplete data and from insufficient focus outside official institutions. In “Citi GPS Women in the Economy: Global Growth Generators,” CFR Senior Fellow Heidi Crebo-Rediker in a report co-authored with Tina M. Fordham of Citi, CFR Adjunct Senior Fellow Willem Buiter, and Ebrahim Rahbari of Citi revisit the “Global Growth Generators” thesis and argue that new policy responses, as well as learning from best practice, could improve female labor force participation with significant benefits that are not just economic but have social implications as well.
Bernie Adeney-Risakotta and Siti Syamsiyatun of Gadjah Mada University's Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies discuss the role of gender and Islam in Indonesian public policy, as part of CFR's Religion and Foreign Policy Initiative.
Writing for the New York Times and Women in the World, Janine Davidson reviews Gayle Tzemach Lemmon’s Ashley’s War. She discusses the institutional and physical challenges faced by this historic band of female battlefield operatives, and reflects on her own experience as the first woman to pilot C-130s in the Air Force.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2015 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »