This paper situates the recent problems in Indonesia in a more general framework that is called the paradox of free-market democracy. The basic thesis advanced is as follows. In Indonesia, as in many developing countries, class and ethnicity overlap in a distinctive and potentially explosive way: namely, in the form of a starkly economically dominant ethnic minority--here, the Sino-Indonesians.
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Six years ago, Korea was in trouble. Its banking system, inadequately supervised,collapsed. Industry,lac king financial discipline,expanded unproductively with its "too big to fail" private firms crowding out smaller rivals. Labor market rigidity weakened the competitive position of Korean industry. The financial crisis that resulted gave rise to hopes that significant reform would address all three dimensions of Korea's vulnerability.
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The export-led growth model for emerging economies is driven by their need to service external debt and build foreign exchange reserves. It has foundered in the aftermath of financial crises characterized by collapsing currency and asset values, widespread bankruptcies in real and financial sectors, rising unemployment, and negative growth rates. This report addresses the issue of building the financial infrastructure for emerging middle-class economies.
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This report suggests that the control of capital in the developed world continues to shift away from private and state-owned institutions and toward public markets. Thereore, small and medium-sized firms with the best prospects for innovation and income/wealth generation need to be liberated from their dependence upon bank-based financial systems. They must also have the ability to turn to market-based systems with access to institutional capital providers at home and abroad.
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President Barack Obama spoke at the African Union headquarters in Addis Ababa on July 28, 2015. He discussed the ten year renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act and additional reforms and other assistance the United States and African leaders work on to increase trade, investment, and growth on the continent. He also addressed the need for presidents to respect term limits and transfer power peacefully and for nations to provide equal treatment for women and girls.
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Leaders from Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa met on July 9, 2015, in Ufa, Russia for the Seventh BRICS Summit, which marked the entry into force of the BRICS's New Development Bank (NDB), which the leaders expect to begin accepting investment requests in the beginning of 2016. The declaration also states the leaders' concerns on international security issues such as corruption, nuclear weapons, instability and conflict, and terrorism, and their commitments to social issues like global health and education.
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On January 26, 2015 at the U.S.-India Business Council Summit, President Obama lays out new U.S. initiatives to increase investment and trade in India, related to removing barriers to investment, technology transfer, and inclusive growth.
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U.S. President Barack Obama and Indian President Narendra Modi made this joint statement on January 26, 2015. They discussed clean energy and climate change, civil nuclear cooperation, and defense and economic cooperation. Both administrations also discussed their visions to strengthen ties in the Asia-Pacific region. Defense secretaries from both countires met in June 2015 and released the U.S.-India Defense Framework.
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The sixth summit of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries met in Fortaleza, Brazil, on July 15, 2014. The theme of discussions was "Inclusive Growth: Sustainable Solutions" and the declaration detailed progress in establishing the BRICS's New Development Bank, which was first discussed in the 2013 Durban Joint Statement.
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The IMF launched this report in March 2002, in order "to provide a regular assessment of global financial markets and to identify potential systemic weaknesses that could lead to crises."
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The fifth summit of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries met in Durban, South Africa March 26 and 27, 2013, to discuss "political and economic coordination." They released their fifth summit declaration, "BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Development, Integration and Industrialisation," which includes plans for a BRICS development bank. In the 2014 Fortaleza Declaration of the Sixth BRICS Summit, more details about the bank are explained.
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The health mininsters of the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China, South Africa) released this statement on public health, technology transfer, and access to medicines on July 11, 2011.
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See more in Emerging Markets; Congresses, Parliaments, National Legislatures; North Korea; Financial Crises
Emerging economies have boomed over the past decade, but many have recently seen their currencies come under pressure. With a potential currency crisis looming, CFR's Steven Cook, Marcus Noland of the Petersen Institute for International Economics, and Mitchell Orenstein of Northeastern University take an in-depth look at three emerging market success stories in a conversation with Foreign Affairs editor Gideon Rose.
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Chilean minister of finance Felipe Larrain discusses the world economy and emerging markets.
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Obiageli Ezekwesili discusses the rise of Africa as a frontier market, the prospects for growth in coming years, the emergence of new players in African economies, and the World Bank's most innovative projects in the region.
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Pham Binh Minh, minister of foreign affairs for the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, analyzes Vietnam's relationship with the United States and surrounding nations, and outlines the country's strategy for economic growth.
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Experts weigh in on the role that the govenment should play in the private sector given the recent experiences of the automotive industry.
This session was part of the Corporate Program's CEO Speaker series.
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Embarking on her first international trip later this month, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton will travel to Japan, South Korea, China, and Indonesia to reinforce President Obama's commitment to active engagement and discuss the global financial crisis. Join CFR experts Edward Alden, Caroline Atkinson, and Elizabeth C. Economy to discuss U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, the global economy, and the challenges and opportunities that fill the new administration's inbox.
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As the financial crisis in the U.S. begins to seep into sectors domestically and ripples overseas to European markets, the reaction and situation in Asia is somewhat curious. Dr. Gerard Lyons, Chief Economist and Group Head of Global Research at Standard Chartered, discusses his view on the global economy from the Asia lens.
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