Ethnicity, Minorities, and National Identity


Speaking Like a State

Author: Alyssa Ayres
Alyssa Ayres examines Pakistan's troubled history by exploring the importance of culture to political legitimacy. By comparing Pakistan's experience with those of India and Indonesia, Ayres analyzes how their national language policies led to very different outcomes. The lessons of these large multiethnic states offer insights for the understanding of culture, identity, and nationalism throughout the world.

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Primary Sources

UN: Durban Declaration and Programme of Action at the World Conference against Racism (WCAR)

This document came from the UN World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa, during April 20-24, 2009. The programme of action proposes measures that nations, regions, and international bodies can implement to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. It includes "recognition that no country can claim to be free of racism, that racism is a global concern, and that tackling it should be a universal effort, is an important achievement." The UN proclaimed that 2015-2024 is the International Decade for People of African Descent.

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