Conceived at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference to help rebuild postwar Europe, the World Bank has expanded over the ensuing 70 years into a global organization dedicated to promoting economic growth and reducing poverty -- goals it aims to meet by giving the billions of dollars in gets in contributions from developed countries to developing ones in the form of loans and grants.
According to the prevailing wisdom in the West, the Ukraine crisis can be blamed almost entirely on Russian aggression. Russian President Vladimir Putin, the argument goes, annexed Crimea out of a long-standing desire to resuscitate the Soviet empire, and he may eventually go after the rest of Ukraine, as well as other countries in eastern Europe.
Twenty-five years ago this November, an East German Politburo member bungled the announcement of what were meant to be limited changes to travel regulations, thereby inspiring crowds to storm the border dividing East and West Berlin.
G20 leaders met in Queensland November 15 and 16, 2014. Leaders agreed to aim for a two percent increase in the G20 GDP, to fund an infrastructure knowledge sharing network, to address climate change with energy efficiency goals, and to combat tax evasion and corruption.
The Berlin Wall's collapse a quarter of a century ago sparked the transformation of institutions, governments, and economies across Europe. This feature looks back at some of the most significant consequences and developments.
Samir Saran explains India's position in advance of the 2014 ITU conference, arguing that India believes that the ITU has a role to play in Internet governance, although Delhi does not oppose a multistakeholder approach.
Christian Schaller and Johannes Thimm analyze Germany's policy priorities at the ITU conference in Busan, South Korea, arguing that Germany will go to Busan opposed to the expansion of the ITU mandate, but in search of ways to increase the ITU's technical capabilities to broaden access.
Adam Segal explains the U.S. approach at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, South Korea, where the United States is looking to defend its approach to Internet governance. Washington and its allies favor the "multistakeholder" model: a bottom-up policy process that includes organizations representing technical experts, governments, businesses, civil society, and individual users.
The sixth summit of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries met in Fortaleza, Brazil, on July 15, 2014. The theme of discussions was "Inclusive Growth: Sustainable Solutions" and the declaration detailed progress in establishing the BRICS's New Development Bank, which was first discussed in the 2013 Durban Joint Statement.
Japan's new politics challenge some basic assumptions about U.S.-Japan alliance management. CFR Senior Fellow Sheila A. Smith explores this new era of alternating parties in power and reveals the growing importance of Japan's domestic politics in shaping alliance cooperation.
Group of Seven (G7), which includes leaders from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission, met in Brussels on June 4-5, 2014. They released a declaration on commitments to energy security and climate, economy and development and several foreign policy issues, such as the political transition in Ukraine and Russia's actions in the country.
U.S. President Barack Obama and UK Prime Minister David Cameron held a press conference on June 5, 2014, after the G7 meeting in Brussels. They discussed relations with Ukraine and Russia and the United Kingdom's relationship with the European Union.
The West is threatening another round of sanctions against Russia in an effort to deter meddling in the May 25 presidential elections in Ukraine. The Obama administration and its allies are placing high hopes in the ability of sanctions to sway Russian actions and generally contest Russia's annexation of Crimea and meddling in the Ukraine.
The recently reconstituted G7 is poised to serve as a forum for highly industrialized democracies to coordinate economic, security, and energy policy, but critics say that its membership is outdated, undermining its relevance to global governance.
Western leaders' ejection of Russia from the Group of Eight eliminates a "longstanding irritant" for the G7, but it will not likely influence Putin's strategic calculations, says CFR's Stewart M. Patrick.
The interactive Global Governance Monitor tracks, maps, and evaluates multilateral efforts to address today's global challenges.
CFR Experts Guide
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »