The joint resolution of Congress gave President George Bush the authority to use military force against Iraq to "defend the national security of the United States against the continuing threat posed by Iraq and to enforce all relevant United Nations Security Council Resolutions regarding Iraq." President Bush used military force five months after the resolution was passed.
The resolution is an update of Security Council resolution 660 and ultimately gives authorization for invasion. "Authorizes Member States ... to use all necessary means" to bring Iraq into compliance with previous Security Council resolutions if it did not do so by January 15, 1991.
In his Senate testimony before the Committee on Armed Services, CFR's George F. Kennan Senior Fellow for Russian and Eurasian Studies Stephen Sestanovich argued that the United States should challenge responsible Russians to see how strange their country's military policy in Syria looks to the outside world.
Experts discuss what lessons the military learned during the Iraq war, and how the war in Iraq will influence future policy making.
CFR Senior Fellow Stephen Biddle and Foreign Affairs Managing Editor Gideon Rose discuss the way forward in Afghanistan.
Stephen Biddle and Max Boot, who have both recently been in Iraq , discuss the troop surge.
Russian airstrikes in Syria could have an impact on Syria’s internal evolution, the politics of the region, and relations among the great powers, says CFR’s Stephen Sestanovich.
The violence in Gaza is likely to continue until a third party brokers a deal that allows both Israel and Hamas to claim successes as a result of the bloodshed, says CFR's Robert Danin.
Experts discuss managing risk in military planning, the effects of sequestration on defense, and tradeoffs between risk and available resources.
CFR's James M. Lindsay remembers the Bay of Pigs invasion, which began on April 17, 1961, and discusses the importance of preparing for failure and planning accordingly.
The winner of the 2012 U.S. presidential race will have to make critical decisions on Afghanistan, including how to support and fund Afghan forces as well as possible concessions to the Taliban, says CFR's Stephen Biddle.
Stephen Biddle, Senior Fellow for Defense Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations, discusses the implications of Osama bin Laden's death for the United States' role in Afghanistan.
Watch Linda Robinson, author in residence at the Johns Hopkins University's Philip Merrill Center for Strategic Studies and Francis J. West, correspondent at the Atlantic Monthly Press, assess the political and strategic effects of the surge in Iraq.
Watch Barry McCaffrey, a retired U.S. army general and adjunct professor of international affairs at West Point, discuss past failings and future options for success in Iraq five years after the war began.
To ensure the success of Myanmar's historic democratic transition, the United States should revise its outdated and counterproductive sanctions policy.
Blackwill and Campbell analyze the rise of Chinese President Xi Jinping and call for a new American grand strategy for Asia.
Williams argues that greater U.S. involvement is necessary to enhance the quality and success of peacekeeping missions.
Kurlantzick offers the sharpest analysis yet of what state capitalism’s emergence means for democratic politics around the world. More
In a cogent analysis of why the United States is losing ground as a world power, Blackwill and Harris explore the statecraft of geoeconomics. More
Takeyh and Simon reframe the legacy of U.S. involvement in the Arab world from 1945 to 1991 and shed new light on the makings of the contemporary Middle East. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2015 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
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