National People's Congress in China passed this law on July 1, 2015. It outlines the government's authority to respond to threats to China's assets and activities in its borders and territories, as well as in cyberspace, space, the deep sea, and polar regions. The law also establishes a national security leadership system for crisis management. On July 6, 2015, the National People's Congress released the text of its proposed Cybersecurity Law that provides additional guidance on technology security standards.
This legislation was introduced to Congress on April 28, 2015, as H.R. 2048 Uniting and Strengthening America by Fulfilling Rights and Ensuring Effective Discipline Over Monitoring Act of 2015. President Obama signed it into law on June 2, 2015. The act is an overhaul of the National Security Council's intelligence gathering program, the largest reform of the program since the 1978 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.
In 2015, the United States assumed the Chair of the Arctic Council and President Barack Obama released this executive order for coordinating U.S. federal efforts and priorities in the Arctic and working with Alaska tribal governments on issues of climate change, national security, scientific research, energy, and more.
International leaders and donors met in London on December 4, 2014, and they reviewed the democractically elected government's reform initiatives for fighting corruption and boosting the econommy and its requests for continued financial aid as military troops leave.
In December 20, 2013, the Department of Defense was tasked with reporting improvements on the prevention and response to sexual assault in the military. It released its report on November 25, 2014. NY Senator Karen Gillibrand responded, saying data from the study that indicated that sixty-three percent of victims report being retaliated against for coming forward about their assault.
This U.S. Court of Appeal's Second Circuit ruled that this redacted version of a 2010 Justice Department memo, which "signed off on the effort to target Anwar Al-Awlaki, an American citizen deemed a terrorist, for killing without a trial," had to be released, in response to FOIA requests filed by the New York Times and the American Civil Liberties Union.
The state is the most precious of human possessions," the economist Alfred Marshall remarked in 1919, toward the end of his life, "and no care can be too great to be spent on enabling it to do its work in the best way."
Who caused the Cold War? In War and Peace, Leo Tolstoy downplayed the role of human agency in shaping events, writing that "a king is history's slave," and ever since Thucydides chronicled the Peloponnesian War, historians have recognized how the international system constrains choices in a bipolar world.
On the way back from a recent visit to Ukraine, I found myself flying Aeroflot, Russia's national airline. I've always liked Aeroflot's international flights: the planes are new, everything's clean, and maybe because of the airline's less-than-stellar reputation, the crew always seems to be trying extra hard to please.
The Obama administration implemented an initiative to "take specific actions to implement the principles of transparency, participation, and collaboration," which include publishing more government data online, improving the quality of government document, encouraging a culture of openness and enabling a framework for open policy.
"Democracy is going through a difficult time. Where autocrats have been driven out of office, their opponents have mostly failed to create viable democratic regimes. Even in established democracies, flaws in the system have become worryingly visible and disillusion with politics is rife. Yet just a few years ago democracy looked as though it would dominate the world."
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2015 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »