Pollution

Primary Sources

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol sets environmental goals and obligations for its signatories to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases. Russia signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1999, but there was some debate over its stipulations and it did not ratify the protocol until September 2004.

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Primary Sources

Clean Air Act

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency states: "The Clean Air Act of 1963 was the first federal legislation regarding air pollution control. It established a federal program within the U.S. Public Health Service and authorized research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution."

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Primary Sources

Montreal Protocol

Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, governments recognized the need for stronger measures to reduce the production and consumption of a number of CFCs and several Halons. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted onSeptember 16, 1987, at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal.

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Teaching Note

The River Runs Black: The Environmental Challenge to China’s Future

Author: Elizabeth C. Economy

Selected by The Globalist as one of the top ten books of 2004, The River Runs Black is the most comprehensive and balanced volume to date on China's growing environmental crisis and its implications for the country's development. Based on historical research, case studies, and interviews with officials, scholars, and activists in China, this book provides insightful analysis of the economic and political roots of China's environmental challenge as well as the evolution of the leadership's response.

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