The European Union initiated political, economic, and security discussions with post-Soviet Union states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. At a conference in Prague on May 7, 2009, the joint declaration describes these negotiations and their association agreements. EU has signed agreements with Ukraine and Georgia. Russia has initiated its own negotiations with Ukraine and Georgia separatist regions.
Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, and South Korean President Lee Myung-bak met in Fukuoka, Japan on December 13, 2008, to participate in their first trilateral talks outside of ASEAN. The trilateral summit was proposed by South Korea in 2004 to build cooperation on economic, humanitarian, security, and diplomatic issues.
The EU introduction to this report states: “The European Council adopted the European Security Strategy (ESS) in December 2003. For the first time, it established principles and set clear objectives for advancing the EU's security interests based on our core values. It is comprehensive in its approach and remains fully relevant. This report does not replace the ESS, but reinforces it. It gives an opportunity to examine how we have fared in practice, and what can be done to improve implementation.”
The governments of the Member States of ASEAN and the Government of the People's Republic of China signed a code of conduct on November 4, 2002, regarding cooperation in the South China Sea, in accordance with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) was proposed in 1992 by the president of Kazakhstan as an organization to promote trust, peace, conflict resolution, and repect for sovereignty between Asian states. Foreign affairs ministers signed a declaration of principles on September 14, 1999 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. CICA's charter (the Almaty Act) was adopted on June 4, 2002.
In June 2002, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan signed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Charter, to resolve border disputes and cooperate on other security issues.
This act, adopted at the Lome Summit (Togo), established the African Union on July 11, 2000, and entered into force in 2001.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe produced this charter in Istanbul, Turkey on November 19, 1999.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) website states, "On 1 August 1975, with the process of détente gradually thawing the chill that the Cold War had cast over international relations, the Heads of State or Government of 35 nations gathered in Helsinki to sign the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE)."
The Helsinki Accords (also known as the Helsinki Declaration) was the concluding document of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in Helsinki, Finland, and is dated August 1, 1975. The United States, Canada, and the majority of European states signed the accords.
Winston Churchill delivered this speech at the University of Zurich on September 19, 1946. He called on European countries, including Germany, to form a regional organization for security and cooperation on the continent.
Marten outlines how U.S. policymakers can deter Russian aggression with robust support for NATO, while reassuring Russia of NATO’s defensive intentions.
Segal offers recommendations for cooperation on issues such as encryption, data localization, and cybersecurity.
Knopf argues that the only remaining path for South Sudan is for an international transitional administration to run the country for a finite period.
The definitive account of the secret war in Laos, which forever changed the CIA from a relatively small spying agency into an organization with vast paramilitary powers. More
CFR President Haass argues for an updated global operating system to address challenges from terrorism to climate change. More
Alden provides an enlightening history of the last four decades of U.S. trade policies and a blueprint for how to keep the United States competitive in a globalized economy. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2016 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
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