The European Union initiated political, economic, and security discussions with post-Soviet Union states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. At a conference in Prague on May 7, 2009, the joint declaration describes these negotiations and their association agreements. EU has signed agreements with Ukraine and Georgia. Russia has initiated its own negotiations with Ukraine and Georgia separatist regions.
The EU introduction to this report states: “The European Council adopted the European Security Strategy (ESS) in December 2003. For the first time, it established principles and set clear objectives for advancing the EU's security interests based on our core values. It is comprehensive in its approach and remains fully relevant. This report does not replace the ESS, but reinforces it. It gives an opportunity to examine how we have fared in practice, and what can be done to improve implementation.”
The governments of the Member States of ASEAN and the Government of the People's Republic of China signed a code of conduct on November 4, 2002, regarding cooperation in the South China Sea, in accordance with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) was proposed in 1992 by the president of Kazakhstan as an organization to promote trust, peace, conflict resolution, and repect for sovereignty between Asian states. Foreign affairs ministers signed a declaration of principles on September 14, 1999 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. CICA's charter (the Almaty Act) was adopted on June 4, 2002.
In June 2002, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan signed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Charter, to resolve border disputes and cooperate on other security issues.
This act, adopted at the Lome Summit (Togo), established the African Union on July 11, 2000, and entered into force in 2001.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) website states, "On 1 August 1975, with the process of détente gradually thawing the chill that the Cold War had cast over international relations, the Heads of State or Government of 35 nations gathered in Helsinki to sign the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE)."
Winston Churchill delivered this speech at the University of Zurich on September 19, 1946. He called on European countries, including Germany, to form a regional organization for security and cooperation on the continent.
In his testimony before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Ray Takeyh argues that in order to successfully combat Iran's destabilizing influence in the Middle East, the United States must be an active player in Syria and Iraq and undertake a more systematic effort to contest all of Iran's regional assets.
In her testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Sheila A. Smith discusses the strategic importance of the United States' relationship with Japan and South Korea and how President Barack Obama can promote the importance of both bilateral and trilateral relations.
In her testimony before the Senate Subcommmittee on Western Hemisphere and Global Narcotics Affairs, Shannon K. O'Neil discusses the United States' bilateral security relationship with Mexico and argues that a strong and safe Mexico will have positive benefits for the United States, while a dangerous Mexico will have repercussions far beyond the southern U.S. border.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Koblentz argues that the United States should work with other nuclear-armed states to manage threats to nuclear stability in the near term and establish processes for multilateral arms control efforts over the longer term.
The authors argue that it is essential to begin working now to expand and establish rules and norms governing armed drones, thereby creating standards of behavior that other countries will be more likely to follow.
Smith's insightful book explores the policy issues testing the Japanese government as it tries to navigate its relationship with an advancing China. More
This revolutionary new look at volatility and crisis in oil markets explores the conditions in which oil supply fears arise, gain popularity, and eventually wane. More
Maximalist finds lessons in the past that anticipate and clarify our chaotic present, revealing the history of U.S. foreign policy in an unexpected new light. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
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