The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) was proposed in 1992 by the president of Kazakhstan as an organization to promote trust, peace, conflict resolution, and repect for sovereignty between Asian states. Foreign affairs ministers signed a declaration of principles on September 14, 1999 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. CICA's charter (the Almaty Act) was adopted on June 4, 2002.
In June 2002, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan signed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Charter, to resolve border disputes and cooperate on other security issues.
This act, adopted at the Lome Summit (Togo), established the African Union on July 11, 2000, and entered into force in 2001.
Once the playground of tyrants like Uganda's Idi Amin, Ethiopia's Mengistu Haile Mariam, and Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko, Africa is finally shedding its postcolonial heritage of despotism and chaos. In Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, a new generation of nationalist leaders with strong and disciplined armies is emerging to take control of the continent. Their fights against the old foreign-supported order have left them suspicious of anything that comes from abroad, especially from France. Still, they are far more accountable and egalitarian than their predecessors-and they want to get into the United States' good books.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) website states, "On 1 August 1975, with the process of détente gradually thawing the chill that the Cold War had cast over international relations, the Heads of State or Government of 35 nations gathered in Helsinki to sign the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE)."
Winston Churchill delivered this speech at the University of Zurich on September 19, 1946. He called on European countries, including Germany, to form a regional organization for security and cooperation on the continent.
Please join Hyun In-taek and Kim Tae-young to discuss their experiences managing crises on the Korean peninsula in 2010 and their policy recommendations for future U.S.-ROK cooperation.
Stephen W. Bosworth of Tufts University and Korea University's Han Sung-Joo join Richard C. Bush III of the Center for East Asia Policy Studies to discuss the history of nuclear negotiations with North Korea and outline the potential policy options going forward.
Williams argues that the status quo for peace operations in untenable and that greater U.S. involvement is necessary to enhance the quality and success of peacekeeping missions.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Ashley's War tells the poignant and gripping story of a groundbreaking team of female American warriors who served alongside Special Operations soldiers in Afghanistan. More
Smith's insightful book explores the policy issues testing the Japanese government as it tries to navigate its relationship with an advancing China. More
This revolutionary new look at volatility and crisis in oil markets explores the conditions in which oil supply fears arise, gain popularity, and eventually wane. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
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