The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) was proposed in 1992 by the president of Kazakhstan as an organization to promote trust, peace, conflict resolution, and repect for sovereignty between Asian states. Foreign affairs ministers signed a declaration of principles on September 14, 1999 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. CICA's charter (the Almaty Act) was adopted on June 4, 2002.
In June 2002, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan signed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Charter, to resolve border disputes and cooperate on other security issues.
This act, adopted at the Lome Summit (Togo), established the African Union on July 11, 2000, and entered into force in 2001.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe produced this charter in Istanbul, Turkey on November 19, 1999.
Once the playground of tyrants like Uganda's Idi Amin, Ethiopia's Mengistu Haile Mariam, and Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko, Africa is finally shedding its postcolonial heritage of despotism and chaos. In Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, a new generation of nationalist leaders with strong and disciplined armies is emerging to take control of the continent. Their fights against the old foreign-supported order have left them suspicious of anything that comes from abroad, especially from France. Still, they are far more accountable and egalitarian than their predecessors-and they want to get into the United States' good books.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) website states, "On 1 August 1975, with the process of détente gradually thawing the chill that the Cold War had cast over international relations, the Heads of State or Government of 35 nations gathered in Helsinki to sign the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE)."
The Helsinki Accords (also known as the Helsinki Declaration) was the concluding document of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in Helsinki, Finland, and is dated August 1, 1975. The United States, Canada, and the majority of European states signed the accords.
Winston Churchill delivered this speech at the University of Zurich on September 19, 1946. He called on European countries, including Germany, to form a regional organization for security and cooperation on the continent.
Please join Hyun In-taek and Kim Tae-young to discuss their experiences managing crises on the Korean peninsula in 2010 and their policy recommendations for future U.S.-ROK cooperation.
Stephen W. Bosworth of Tufts University and Korea University's Han Sung-Joo join Richard C. Bush III of the Center for East Asia Policy Studies to discuss the history of nuclear negotiations with North Korea and outline the potential policy options going forward.
Knopf argues that the only remaining path for South Sudan is for an international transitional administration to run the country for a finite period.
The U.S. relationship with Israel is in trouble. Blackwill and Gordon offer six core policy proposals to repair, redefine, and invigorate the partnership.
To ensure the success of Myanmar's historic democratic transition, the United States should revise its outdated and counterproductive sanctions policy.
Alden provides an enlightening history of the last four decades of U.S. trade policies and a blueprint for how to keep the United States competitive in a globalized economy. More
In this award-winning biography of Alan Greenspan, Mallaby explores Greenspan's life and legacy and tells the story of the making of modern finance. More
In this incisive and deeply informed introduction to postapartheid South Africa, Campbell argues that the country’s future is bright. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2016 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
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