In 1977, President Jimmy Carter released a policy for setting controls on transferring U.S. arms, except for countries with whom the United States had defense treaties. The policy requires an evaluation of a country's human rights record and the economic impact such transfers would have on countries receiving U.S. economic assistance. In February 1995, President Bill Clinton approved a classified policy which included restraints for arms transfers that may be destabilize or threaten to regional peace and security. In January 2014, President Barack Obama updated the policy again with Presidential Policy Directive 27 (PPD-27), to state more clearly the criteria for arms transfer decisions and the transfer of technical data and related services.
This meeting of the Roundtable Series on Digital Policy discusses U.S. efforts to work with countries in the developing world on increasing their connectivity, content, and capacity to participate in global efforts to safeguard the open Internet.
"Samsung's sales are equal to about one-quarter of South Korea's economic output. Samsung Electronics, the flagship, posted $190 billion in sales last year—about the same sales as Microsoft, Google, Amazon and Facebook combined."
Authors: Peter R. Orszag and Cass R. Sunstein Bloomberg.com
Peter Orszag and Cass Sunstein write that governments should use "nudges"—policies that harness economics and psychology to encourage certain behaviors—to deliver major benefits without imposing big costs on the public or private sector.
U.S. space exploration inspired a generation of students and innovators, but NASA's role has diminished, and the number of global space competitors is growing. This Backgrounder explores U.S. competitiveness in space.
All the key barriers to the artificial synthesis of viruses and bacteria have been overcome, spawning a dizzying array of perils and promises. But as the scientific community forges ahead, the biosecurity establishment remains behind the curve.
Authors: Steven Tepp, Kal Raustiala, and Christopher Sprigman
In their essay "Fake It Till You Make It" (July/August 2013), Kal Raustiala and Christopher Sprigman urged the United States to "relax" when it comes to the flagrant disregard for intellectual property laws in China.
"'Google believes very strongly in a free internet. The mainland just passed the law about the 500-reposts thing. Then you will definitely think about it before you write. It's a problem, (it) means your voice is not fully heard,' said Schmidt."
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2015 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »