This model additional protocol was released by the IAEA in September 1997 as "a model Additional Protocol designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the Agency, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system as a contribution to global nuclear nonproliferation objectives".
The 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was held May 3-28, 2011. This final document includes "Review of the operation of the Treaty, as provided for in its article VIII (3), taking into account the decisions and the resolution adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference and the Final Document of the 2000 Review Conference — Conclusions and recommendations for follow-on actions".
North Korea's agreement to freeze nuclear activities and allow in inspectors, while stirring hopes, echoes past deals that have failed to initiate a sustained denuclearization program, says expert Mark E. Manyin.
U.S. State Department Spokesperson Victoria Nuland gave this statement on February 29, 2012 regarding U.S.-North Korea bilateral talks and North Korea's agreement to implement a moratorium on nuclear activities including uranium enrichment.
North Korea's decision to suspend nuclear tests in exchange for U.S. food aid may pave the way for resumption of the Six-Party Talks on denuclearization, but it's unlikely to yield significant progress, says CFR's Scott Snyder.
Iran's March 2 parliamentary elections will shed light on the power struggle among conservative forces, says expert Farideh Farhi, adding that the political environment in Tehran and Washington makes nuclear negotiations unlikely.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published their updated report on the "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran" on February 24, 2012. The report updates the nuclear situation in Iran since the last report of November 2011. Among its findings: "The Agency continues to have serious concerns regarding possible military dimensions to Iran's nuclear programme".
Richard N. Haass and Michael A. Levi say it is in the American interest to pursue a negotiated outcome to the current impasse with Iran because the main alternatives to diplomacy—war or the existence of an Iran with nuclear weapons—will be costly and risky.
The 2009 Statement of Principles of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism are, according the U.S. Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, "a set of broad nuclear security goals that encompass a range of deterrence, detection, prevention, and response objectives. The eight principles contained within the SOP aim to develop partnership capacity to combat nuclear terrorism, consistent with national legal authorities and obligations as well as relevant international legal frameworks such as the Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, and United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1373 and 1540".
The extraordinary risks posed by a nuclear-armed Iran require Washington and its partners to step up activity on economic sanctions and diplomacy, even while preparing military options, says CFR President Richard N. Haass.
The New York Times' Bill Keller discusses why a hawkish position concerning Iran is the most abused foreign policy issue in this presidential campaign year, and why a military option may be the best way to guarantee exactly what we are trying to prevent.
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.
The author examines Pakistan's complex role in U.S. foreign policy and advocates for a two-pronged approach that works to quarantine threats while integrating Pakistan into the broader U.S. agenda in Asia.