This treaty between Russia and the United States limits each country's nuclear holdings so that "the aggregate number of ... warheads does not exceed 1,700 to 2,200 for each Party." It replaced the START II treaty, from which Russia withdrew after the United States withdrew from the ABM treaty. The Moscow Treaty was signed by Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin and was in force June 2003 to February 2011, when it was superceded by the new START treaty signed between Presidents Barack Obama and Putin.
Most politicians, policymakers, and analysts hailed the Kyoto Protocol as a vital first step toward slowing greenhouse warming. Council Senior Fellow David Victor was not among them. In this clear and cogent book, Victor explains why the Kyoto Protocol is unlikely to enter into force and how its failure will offer the opportunity to establish a more realistic alternative.
This Agreement, also known as the Taba Agreement, called for Israeli withdrawals from various Palestinian areas and expanded Palestinian self-rule. It divided the West Bank and Gaza into three areas, controlled by either Israel, the Palestinians, or Palestinian civil authority with Israeli military control. Oslo II also allowed Palestinian election, which took place in 1996. Among other provisions, the Agreement also provided "safe passage" to Palestinians travelling between Gaza and the Wet Bank, although Israel was also allowed to legally close crossing points into Israel if deemed necessary.
Released before the 1995 New York City meeting surrounding the Nonproliferation Treaty, this report states that halting the spread of nuclear weapons must be a top priority not just for the United States but for the entire international community.
The Accords were the result of various negotiations between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in an attempt to resolve the conflict between Israel and Palestine. The Accords stipulated that the Palestinian Authority be officially recognized by Israel as the governing body of the Palestinian people and be afforded self-government in parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PLO in turn recognized Israel's right to exist and renounced its intent to attack and destroy that state. Such "permanent issues" as border security and Israeli settlements were left out of the accords purposely, to be resolved in other talks. The agreement was signed by Mahmoud Abbas (PLO) and Shimon Peres (Israel).
By this Treaty, the High Contracting Parties establish among themselves a European Union, hereinafter called ‘the Union'.
This treaty, "Agreement between Japan and the United States of America Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Island," negotiated control of Okinawa back to Japan while maintaining U.S. military forces on the islands. It is known more commonly as the Okinawa Reversion Agreement.
United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution XXI, "The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" ("the Outer Space Treaty") on December 19, 1966, an it entered into force on October 10, 1967. It provides a framework for the international regulation of space activities.
Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, Dr. Konrad Adenauer, and the President of the French Republic, Charles de Gaulle, signed this treaty on January 22, 1963 to mark the reconciliation of the two countries after World War II.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Koblentz argues that the United States should work with other nuclear-armed states to manage threats to nuclear stability in the near term and establish processes for multilateral arms control efforts over the longer term.
The authors argue that it is essential to begin working now to expand and establish rules and norms governing armed drones, thereby creating standards of behavior that other countries will be more likely to follow.
Smith's insightful book explores the policy issues testing the Japanese government as it tries to navigate its relationship with an advancing China. More
This revolutionary new look at volatility and crisis in oil markets explores the conditions in which oil supply fears arise, gain popularity, and eventually wane. More
Maximalist finds lessons in the past that anticipate and clarify our chaotic present, revealing the history of U.S. foreign policy in an unexpected new light. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
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