President George Bush gave this order on July 20, 2007, which states that members of terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda and the Taliban "are unlawful enemy combatants who are not entitled to the protections that the Third Geneva Convention provides to prisoners of war." This order was revoked in 2009 by Executive Order 13491, which reaffirms U.S. commitments to international treaties related to the treatment of detainees.
This treaty between Russia and the United States limits each country's nuclear holdings so that "the aggregate number of ... warheads does not exceed 1,700 to 2,200 for each Party." It replaced the START II treaty, from which Russia withdrew after the United States withdrew from the ABM treaty. The Moscow Treaty was signed by Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin and was in force June 2003 to February 2011, when it was superceded by the new START treaty signed between Presidents Barack Obama and Putin.
Most politicians, policymakers, and analysts hailed the Kyoto Protocol as a vital first step toward slowing greenhouse warming. Council Senior Fellow David Victor was not among them. In this clear and cogent book, Victor explains why the Kyoto Protocol is unlikely to enter into force and how its failure will offer the opportunity to establish a more realistic alternative.
This Agreement, also known as the Taba Agreement, called for Israeli withdrawals from various Palestinian areas and expanded Palestinian self-rule. It divided the West Bank and Gaza into three areas, controlled by either Israel, the Palestinians, or Palestinian civil authority with Israeli military control. Oslo II also allowed Palestinian election, which took place in 1996. Among other provisions, the Agreement also provided "safe passage" to Palestinians travelling between Gaza and the Wet Bank, although Israel was also allowed to legally close crossing points into Israel if deemed necessary.
Released before the 1995 New York City meeting surrounding the Nonproliferation Treaty, this report states that halting the spread of nuclear weapons must be a top priority not just for the United States but for the entire international community.
The Accords were the result of various negotiations between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in an attempt to resolve the conflict between Israel and Palestine. The Accords stipulated that the Palestinian Authority be officially recognized by Israel as the governing body of the Palestinian people and be afforded self-government in parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PLO in turn recognized Israel's right to exist and renounced its intent to attack and destroy that state. Such "permanent issues" as border security and Israeli settlements were left out of the accords purposely, to be resolved in other talks. The agreement was signed by Mahmoud Abbas (PLO) and Shimon Peres (Israel).
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Learn more about CFRâ€™s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »