Treaties and Agreements

Primary Sources

Executive Order 13440: Interpretation of the Geneva Conventions Common Article 3 as Applied to a Program of Detention and Interrogation Operated by the Central Intelligence Agency

Author: George W. Bush

President George Bush gave this order on July 20, 2007, which states that members of terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda and the Taliban "are unlawful enemy combatants who are not entitled to the protections that the Third Geneva Convention provides to prisoners of war." This order was revoked in 2009 by Executive Order 13491, which reaffirms U.S. commitments to international treaties related to the treatment of detainees.

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Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (Moscow Treaty)

This treaty between Russia and the United States limits each country's nuclear holdings so that "the aggregate number of ... warheads does not exceed 1,700 to 2,200 for each Party." It replaced the START II treaty, from which Russia withdrew after the United States withdrew from the ABM treaty. The Moscow Treaty was signed by Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin and was in force June 2003 to February 2011, when it was superceded by the new START treaty signed between Presidents Barack Obama and Putin.

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The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming

Author: David G. Victor

Most politicians, policymakers, and analysts hailed the Kyoto Protocol as a vital first step toward slowing greenhouse warming. Council Senior Fellow David Victor was not among them. In this clear and cogent book, Victor explains why the Kyoto Protocol is unlikely to enter into force and how its failure will offer the opportunity to establish a more realistic alternative.

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Oslo II Accords (Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip)

This Agreement, also known as the Taba Agreement, called for Israeli withdrawals from various Palestinian areas and expanded Palestinian self-rule. It divided the West Bank and Gaza into three areas, controlled by either Israel, the Palestinians, or Palestinian civil authority with Israeli military control. Oslo II also allowed Palestinian election, which took place in 1996. Among other provisions, the Agreement also provided "safe passage" to Palestinians travelling between Gaza and the Wet Bank, although Israel was also allowed to legally close crossing points into Israel if deemed necessary.

See more in Israel; Diplomacy and Statecraft; Palestine; Treaties and Agreements

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Oslo I Accords (Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements)

The Accords were the result of various negotiations between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in an attempt to resolve the conflict between Israel and Palestine. The Accords stipulated that the Palestinian Authority be officially recognized by Israel as the governing body of the Palestinian people and be afforded self-government in parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PLO in turn recognized Israel's right to exist and renounced its intent to attack and destroy that state. Such "permanent issues" as border security and Israeli settlements were left out of the accords purposely, to be resolved in other talks. The agreement was signed by Mahmoud Abbas (PLO) and Shimon Peres (Israel).

See more in Diplomacy and Statecraft; Palestine; Treaties and Agreements; Israel