Wars and Warfare

Article

Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?

Authors: Stephen D. Biddle, Jeffrey A. Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro
International Security

Examining the decline of violence in Iraq at the end of 2007, Stephen Biddle, Jeffrey A. Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro argue, "A synergistic interaction between the surge and the [Sunni] Awakening was required for violence to drop as quickly and widely as it did: both were necessary; neither was sufficient."

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