Council on Foreign Relations Press
The United States spends approximately $700 million per year in the Andean region, but this Commission report concludes that current U.S. policy--focused narrowly on “drugs and thugs” in the Andes--cannot achieve U.S. regional goals of democracy, prosperity, and security. Andes 2020 offers bold new recommendations to recalibrate U.S. policy to better meet its objectives.
The Commission hopes to redress what it considers to be a major weakness of current U.S. policy as embodied in Plan Colombia and the Andean Counter-drug Initiative: an overly narrow focus on counternarcotics and security issues, and the relative absence of complementary, comprehensive, regionally oriented strategies. The report calls not for more resources, but for a readjustment of U.S. financial and political commitments to sustain American engagement beyond PlanColombia’s expiration in 2005.
The report puts forth three objectives to rectify current policy: first, the need to more equitably distribute political and economic resources and power in each country, with a commitment to strategic rural land reform; second, the importance of greater participation by the international community on a range of diplomatic, political, economic, social, security, and humanitarian issues; and third, the recognition that regional problems require regional approaches and that greater cooperation among the Andean countries is essential. Determined action on these three strategic objectives will, over time, accomplish sustainable progress toward political, economic, and security goals that a policy focused mainly on supply-side counterdrug efforts cannot achieve.
DANIEL W. CHRISTMAN is senior vice president of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Prior to joining the Chamber of Commerce, he was the president and executive director of the Kimsey Foundation.
JOHN G. HEIMANN is senior adviser of the Financial Stability Institute. He is also chairman of global financial institutions at Merrill Lynch & Co, Inc. From 1977 to 1981, he served the Carter administration as comptroller of the currency.
JULIA E. SWEIG is senior fellow and deputy director of the Latin America program at the Council on Foreign Relations.
FULTON ARMSTRONG has been the National Intelligence Officer for Latin America since June 2000. Previously, he served as Chief of Staff of the Directorate of Central Intelligence Crime and Narcotics Center; two terms as a Director for Inter-American Affairs at the National Security Council (1995-97 and 1998-99); and as Deputy National Intelligence Officer for Latin America (1997-98). Before that, he held various analytical and policy positions, including one as the Political-Economic Officer at the U.S. Interests Section in Havana .
ALBERTO IBARGUEN is Publisher of The Miami Herald. Previously, he was Executive Vice President of Newsday. He served in the Peace Corps in Venezuela , was the Peace Corps Program Director in Colombia , and went on to practice law in Connecticut . Mr. Ibarguen is Vice Chairman of the Public Broadcasting System. He also sits on the boards of the Freedom Forum, the Inter-American Press Association, and the Committee to Protect Journalists.
EDWARD JARDINE is the President of Procter & Gamble in Venezuela and the Andean region. He has been with Procter & Gamble in Venezuela since 1978. He is also a member of the board of directors, President Investment Committee of the Venezuelan American Chamber of Commerce.
JAMES LEMOYNE is the Special Advisor on Colombia to the United Nations secretary general. Previously, he was a Senior Foreign Correspondent and Foreign Policy Analyst, specializing in conflicts and peace processes in Latin America , the Middle East , Africa , and Europe .
CARL MEACHAM advises the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN), on policy regarding the Western Hemisphere . Prior to working for the Committee, he was Senior Advisor for Foreign Relations and Energy Issues to Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY). Before that, he was a Legislative Assistant for Senator Harry Reid (D-NV). Previously, he served as Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Commerce, Robert L. Mallett.
WILLIAM L. NASH is the John W. Vessey Senior Fellow and Director of the Center for Preventive Action at the Council on Foreign Relations.
JANICE O'CONNELL is a professional staff member of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee and is Senior Foreign Policy Assistant to Senator Christopher J. Dodd (D-CT).
ROGELIO PARDO-MAURER is the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Western Hemisphere Affairs at the U.S. Department of Defense. Before joining the Department of Defense, he wasApresident of Emerging Market Access, a consulting firm based in Washington , DC. He has also been a Managing Partner of Access NAFTA Project Management and President of Chartwell Information Group. He has worked as a Specialist in Latin American and U.S.-Hispanic issues at the American Enterprise Institute and the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
LINDA ROBINSON is a Senior Writer on Latin America at U.S. News and World Report. She has also been a Senior Editor at Foreign Affairs and an Assistant Editor at The Wilson Quarterly.
THOMAS SHANNON is the Senior Director for Western Hemisphere Affairs at the National Security Council. Prior to this appointment, he was the Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs at the Department of State. His other State Department posts have included the Director of Andean Affairs (2001-2002), U.S. Deputy Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States (2000-2001), Director for Inter-American Affairs at the National Security Council (1999-2000), and Political Counselor at the U.S. Embassy in Caracas , Venezuela (1996-99).