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General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Published August 7, 1992

This peace agreement was signed in Rome on August 7, 1992.

Joint Declaration

We, Joaquim Alberto Chissano, President of the Republic of Mozambique, and Afonso Macacho Marceta Dhlakama, President of Renamo,

Meeting at Rome in the presence of His Excellency Mr. Robert Gabriel Mugabe, President of the Republic of Zimbabwe: His Excellency Mr. Emilio Colombo, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Italy: the representative of His Excellency the President of the Republic of Botswana, Ms. Gaositwe Keagakwa Tibe Chiepe, Minister for Foreign Affairs: the mediators of the peace process, Mario Raffaelli, representative of the Italian Government and coordinator of the mediators, Jaime Goncalves, Archbishop of Beira, Andrea Riccardi and Matteo Zuppi, of the Community of Santí Edigio,

recognizing that

The achievement of peace, democracy and national unity based on national reconciliation is the greatest aspiration and desire of the entire Mozambican people,

In pursuit of this goal, the peace process was launched at Rome between the Government of the Republic of Mozambique and Renamo, assisted by mediators from the Italian Government, the Community of Santí Edigio and the Catholic Church of Mozambique,

Important results have been achieved thus far, as exemplified and demonstrated by the signing of the partial ceasefire agreement of 1 December 1990 and the adoption of the following Protocols and agreements: (i) Agreed Agenda of 28 May 1991, and the amendments made thereto by the Act of 19 June 1992;

(ii) Protocol I "Basic principles", signed on 18 October 1991;

(iii) Protocol II "Criteria and arrangements for the formation and recognition of political parties", signed on 13 November 1991;

(iv) Protocol III "Principles of the Electoral Act", signed on 12 March 1992;

(v) Act of 2 July 1992 on improving the functioning of the COMIVE;

(vi) Declaration on guiding principles for humanitarian assistance, signed on 16 July 1992.

Supplementing these efforts in the search for peace, democracy and national unity based on reconciliation in Mozambique, a meeting was held at Gaborone, Botswana, on 4 July 1992 between His Excellency Mr. Robert Gabriel Mugabe, President of the Republic of Zimbabwe, and His Excellency Sir Ketumile Masire, President of the Republic of Botswana, on the one hand, and Mr. Afonso Macacho Marceto Dhlakama, President of Renamo, on the other,

Following which the President of the Republic of Mozambique, MR. Joaquim Alberto Chissano, was briefed in detail by the President of Zimbabwe on 19 July 1992,

Whereas Mr. Afonso Macacho Marceto Dhlakama declared his readiness to sign an immediate ceasefire if certain guarantees were provided and arrangements were made for the security of both himself and members of Renamo, and if his party was given freedom to organize and campaign without interference or hindrance,

Considering his request for guarantees to enable Renamo to operate freely as a political party after the signing of the General Peace Agreement,

Convinced that the suffering of the Mozambican people as a result of the war, exacerbated by the consequences of the worst drought in living memory, demands that rapid steps be taken to end the war,

recognizing the need for the immediate restoration of peace in Mozambique,

Reaffirming the commitment of the Government of the Republic of Mozambique and of Renamo to end the hostilities in Mozambique,

Determined to do everything possible to end the disaster brought about by the combined consequences of war and drought in our country, Appreciating the progress made in Rome peace negotiations between our respective delegations,

Considering the spirit of the Gaborone meeting of 4 July 1992,

Accordingly, commit ourselves to the following:

(i) To guarantee conditions permitting complete political freedom, in accordance with the internationally recognized principles of democracy;

(ii) To guarantee the personal safety of all Mozambican citizens and all members of political parties;

(iii) To accept the role of the international community, particularly the United Nations, in monitoring and guaranteeing the implementation of the General Peace Agreement, particularly the ceasefire and the electoral process;

(iv) Fully to respect the principles set forth in Protocol I, under which "the Government undertakes to refrain from taking any action that is contrary to the provisions of the Protocols to be concluded and from adopting laws or measures or applying existing laws which may be inconsistent with those Protocols" and "Renamo undertakes to refrain from armed combat and instead to conduct its political struggle in conformity with the laws in force, within the framework of existing State institutions and in accordance with the conditions and guarantees established in the General Peace Agreement";

(v) To safeguard political rights, emphasising that the principles set forth in Protocol I are valid and also relate to the problem of constitutional guarantees raised by Renamo and dealt with in the document submitted to President Mugabe. To this end, the Government of the Republic of Mozambique shall submit to the Assembly of the Republic for adoption legal instruments incorporating the Protocols and guarantees, as well as the General Peace Agreement, in Mozambican law;

(vi) On the basis of the above principles and of our commitment made in this solemn Declaration, we, Joaquim Alberto Chissano, President of the Republic of Mozambique, and Afonso Macacho Marceta Dhlakama, President of Renamo, hereby authorise and instruct our respective delegations participating in the Rome peace process to conclude, by 1 October 1992 at the latest, the remaining Protocols provided for in the Agreed Agenda, thereby permitting the signing of the General Peace Agreement by that date.

The signing of the General Peace Agreement and its adoption by the Assembly of the Republic as provided for in paragraph (v) (on this page) of this Declaration shall result in the immediate entry into force of the ceasefire agreed to under the General Peace Agreement.

(Signed) Joaquim Alberto Chissano President of the Republic of Mozambique

(Signed) Afonso Macacho Marceta Dhlakama President of Renamo

(Signed) Robert Gabriel Mugabe President of the Republic of Zimbabwe

Witnessed by:
(Signed) Gaositwe Keagakwa Tibe Chiepe Minister for Foreign Affairs of Botswana

and by the mediators:
(Signed) Mario Raffaelli
(Signed) Jaime Goncalves
(Signed) Andrea Riccardi
(Signed) Matteo Zuppi

Rome, 7 August 1992