The massacre of dozens of Norwegians in Oslo and at a youth camp on nearby Utoya Island by what Norwegian police have described as a right-wing, Christian fanatic on July 22 highlights the rise of anti-Muslim and anti-immigration sentiment throughout Europe and the United States. In a 1,500 page online manifesto, the self-confessed suspect, Anders Behring Breivik, preached against the "Islamization of Western Europe" (WSJ) and multiculturalism, voicing similar concerns to that of many European populist parties across the continent.
The manifesto -- which refers to Muslims as "wild animals" -- shows that Breivik was also influenced by a vocal group of American bloggers (NYT) and writers who have warned of a growing Muslim threat to Western culture. Breivik said he wanted to start a new revolution (Guardian) to defeat liberal immigration policies and the spread of Islam.
Breivik's manifesto, "2083. A European Declaration of Independence," is reminiscent of Jihad instruction manuals posted on the Internet by Islamic terrorists in the years following the September 11 attacks, Magnus Ranstorp, a terror expert at the Swedish National Defense College, told TIME. As Der Spiegel's Frank Patalong explains, the far-right blogs with which Breivik engaged share a common thread: They are "pro-Western, exceedingly pro-American and friendly to Israel -- but extremely anti-Muslim, aggressively Christian and openly hostile to everything which is liberal, leftist, multicultural, or internationalist."
Ali Esbati, an economist at the Manifest Center for Social Analysis, tells al-Jazeera that right-wing radicals in Europe are finding wider acceptance in mainstream politics because they play off public fears about Muslims taking over the continent. "The wider problem is that it's not even radical Islam that's seen as a threat -- it's the idea that all of Islam or Muslims are a threat," Esbati notes.
Speculation in the immediate wake of the attack that the perpetrators were Islamic extremists also is indicative of anti-Muslim tendencies (Guardian) in Western society, some analysts argue. The incident is bound to stir a wider policy debate within the United States and Europe over whether governments are focused too narrowly on weeding out Islamic terrorists. Critics argue that the focus on Islamic militants not only contributes to wider anti-Muslim sentiment (NYT), but also detracts from the threat of other homegrown radicals that have nothing to do with Islam.
Some non-state actors, like Google's new "think/do-tank," Google Ideas, have taken a broader approach to radical extremism. The organization hosted a summit in Dublin last month, in conjunction with CFR, composed of former radicals -- from inner city gang members to religious extremists -- who debated global solutions to extremism and the "poisonous thinking" (DeutscheWelle) that has infiltrated Europe and the United States.
Anders Behring Breivik's ideology appears to be a form of reactionary Christian fundamentalism, fuelled by hatred of Islam, Marxism, and non-whites, writes the Economist.
Todd Green, an assistant professor of religion at Decorah, Iowa-based Luther College, argues on the Huffington Post that the public and political discourse in the United States and Europe is undergirded by an assumption that terrorism is intrinsically related to Islam.
Foreign Policy's Daniel Byman says this may yet turn out to be Norway's 9/11 or Oklahoma City. But the scene of destruction in downtown Oslo begs the question: Why haven't there been more large-scale terrorist attacks on the U.S. homeland?
The Nation's Robert Dreyfuss asks how much influence did Islam-bashing conservatives like Robert Spencer and Pamela Geller have on fanatics like Brievik.