U.S. Foreign Policy Program
An open question as George Bush took the oath of office on January 20, 2005, was how different American foreign policy would be in his second term in office. During his first term, he had challenged traditional approaches to foreign policy. Even before the September 11 attacks, his administration made clear that it refused to accept constraints on American freedom of action, doubted the value of international institutions, and was prepared to alienate even close allies in pursuing what it saw as American interests. Those instincts intensified in the aftermath of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The president announced the Bush Doctrine, which held that the United States would "make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these attacks and those who harbor them." The application of this doctrine led to the Afghanistan War, which had the support of much of the rest of the world, and then the Iraq War, which did not. The administration dismissed complaints that it had invaded Iraq without the express authorization of the United Nations Security Council, even as poll after poll showed that America's image was plunging around the world.
September 1, 2010—Present
The U.S. Foreign Policy Roundtable Series is an ongoing series that provides a forum for discussion with leading experts on the major issues and developments that impact U.S. foreign policy. The series has covered a broad range of topics, such as domestic and international counterterrorism efforts, the global financial crisis, evolving media coverage of international news developments, and U.S. policy in the Greater Middle East, especially in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.
January 25, 2010—April 30, 2010
The United States faces a series of difficult policy and strategic questions with respect to its participation in the upcoming International Criminal court (ICC) Review Conference at Kampala, Uganda. The conference will consider the addition of the definition of the crime of aggression as well as a restriction on the rights of states to opt out of the Court's jurisdiction over war crimes. The conference may also consider proposals that the United States strongly opposed in the 1998 Rome negotiations. This Council Special Report will recommend primary and secondary objectives for the United States at the conference and suggest steps the Obama administration should take to best empower American negotiators to achieve those objectives.
November 1, 2009—October 31, 2011
In the wake of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, there is a clear need for effective systems of national and international justice and accountability. Made possible by the generous support of the MacArthur Foundation, the CFR Program on International Justice examines the work of international criminal tribunals, including the International Criminal Court, and issues such as universal jurisdiction. The program is directed by Adjunct Senior Fellows John B. Bellinger III and Matthew C. Waxman. The program published a special report to prepare for the International Criminal Court's seven year review conference, which took place in Kampala, Uganda, in 2010. In 2011, the program produced a special report that recognizes the limitations of current Hague-based international justice systems and provides a strategy for promoting national-level justice and accountability mechanisms to prosecute perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes.
January 1, 2005—June 30, 2007
Walter Russell Mead is examining the emergence of a middle class in several developing economies and studying the implication of this new force for American foreign policy. The project compares the political role that the middle class played in promoting democracy during the process of industrialization in the West with the role the middle class is playing today in promoting democracy in the Third World.
September 1, 2002—Present
This series invites scholars, policymakers, and leaders to discuss a wide range of issues related to social, political, and economic development, women's empowerment, and education.
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U.S. Foreign Policy Experts
Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow for U.S. Foreign Policy
Senior Fellow and Director of the Civil Society, Markets, and Democracy Initiative; Director of the Women and Foreign Policy Program
Fellow and Deputy Director of the Women and Foreign Policy Program
Adjunct Senior Fellow
Adjunct Senior Fellow for Law and Foreign Policy