This declaration between the U.S. and Russia was made on April 6, 2008 in Sochi, Russia. It includes mention of the Agreement for Cooperation in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (123 Agreement) that was signed in Moscow on May 6, 2008 and awaits entry into force.
The United States and the Russian Federation,
Recalling our Joint Statement of November 13, 2001 on a New Relationship
Between the United States and Russia and our Joint Declaration of May 24, 2002, we reaffirm that the era in which the United States and Russia considered one another an enemy or strategic threat has ended. We reject the zero-sum thinking of the Cold War when “what was good for Russia was bad for America” and vice versa. Rather, we are dedicated to working together and with other nations to address the global challenges of the 21st century, moving the U.S.-Russia relationship from one of strategic competition to strategic partnership. We intend to cooperate as partners to promote security, and to jointly counter the threats to peace we face, including international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. We are determined to build a lasting peace, both on a bilateral basis and in international fora, recognizing our shared responsibility to the people of our countries and the global community of nations to remain steadfast and united in pursuit of international security, and a peaceful, free world. Where we have differences, we will work to resolve them in a spirit of mutual respect.
Recognizing the importance of these issues, we affirm our commitment to respect the rule of law, international law, human rights, tolerance of diversity, political freedom, and a free market approach to economic policy and practices.
We agree that the foundation for the U.S. and Russian relationship should be based on the core principles of friendship, cooperation, openness, and predictability. The strength and stability of this foundation will rest on expanding the network of ties between our governments and our peoples and on the positive examples we set for our societies and for the world as we confront new and emerging threats to global security together as partners. We will strive to identify areas of positive cooperation where our interests coincide, and pursue joint projects and actions that will bring our countries closer together, while minimizing the strain on our partnership where our interests diverge. Going forward, we intend to deepen our cooperation wherever possible, while taking further, even more far-reaching steps, to demonstrate our joint leadership in addressing new challenges to global peace and security in accordance with the principles of international law, taking into consideration the role of the United Nations.
In pursuit of these goals, the United States and the Russian Federation will consult closely on the development of initiatives that will serve our common interests.
We acknowledge that today's security environment is fundamentally different than during the Cold War. We must move beyond past strategic principles, which focused on the prospect of mutual annihilation, and focus on the very real dangers that confront both our nations. These include especially the threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. Reflecting the changed nature of our strategic relationship, we will take steps together to counter these new and emerging challenges.
We have reiterated our intention to carry out strategic offensive reductions to the lowest possible level consistent with our national security requirements and alliance commitments.
Substantial reductions of strategic offensive forces have been carried out under the START Treaty, which served as a key instrument in this context. The Moscow Treaty was an additional important step and remains in effect. We will continue development of a legally binding post-START arrangement.
We are fully committed to the goals of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and consider the arrangement we are pursuing to be a further step in implementing our commitments under Article VI of the Treaty.
We discussed the issue of missile defense. Both sides expressed their interest in creating a system for responding to potential missile threats in which Russia and the United States and Europe will participate as equal partners.
The Russian side has made clear that it does not agree with the decision to establish sites in Poland and the Czech Republic and reiterated its proposed alternative. Yet, it appreciates the measures that the U.S. has proposed and declared that if agreed and implemented such measures will be important and useful in assuaging Russian concerns.
We agreed to intensify our dialogue after Sochi on issues concerning MD cooperation both bilaterally and multilaterally.
INF Treaty: Taking note of our Joint Statement on the INF Treaty at the sixty-second session of the UN General Assembly, we will engage in a high-level dialogue to analyze current and future intermediate-range and shorter-range ballistic and cruise missile threats and inventory options for dealing with them.
Arms Sales: We are fully committed to preventing the illicit trafficking or destabilizing accumulations of conventional arms in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability. The U.S. and Russia will cooperate to ensure that transfers of such weapons do not contribute to the development and enhancement of military capabilities which undermine these goals, as well as to deny conventional arms to terrorists.
Defense Technology Cooperation: We will finalize agreement on the Defense Technology Cooperation Agreement. This agreement will facilitate U.S. and Russian technical cooperation by providing a legal framework for a broad range of cooperative projects, including counter-IED measures, and cooperation on other critical military technologies to counter emerging threats to global security.
We are determined to work closely together on all the major global international issues that confront us, including the pursuit of peace in the Middle East, security and stability in North East Asia through the Six-Party process, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and elsewhere around the world, working with other nations through the United Nations, as well as other international and regional mechanisms, including the NATO-Russia Council and the G-8, to strengthen our cooperation wherever possible.
We will work together to address serious differences in areas where our policies do not coincide, including NATO expansion; development of a package solution that helps restore the viability of the CFE regime and prompt ratification of the Adapted CFE Treaty by all the States Parties; and certain military activities in space.
Preventing the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction
We recognize the profound importance of preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. We must prevent such weapons from falling into the hands of terrorists and those who support them. To this end, our two countries will provide global leadership on a wide range of cooperative efforts that will advance our common nonproliferation goals. These will include new approaches focused on environmentally-friendly technologies that will support economic growth, promote the expansion of nuclear energy, and create a viable alternative to the spread of sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technologies.
NPT: We confirm our continuing support for the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and are committed to its strengthening. We will cooperate in preparing and ensuring a successful outcome of the 2010 NPT Review Conference.
Declaration on Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation: On July 3, 2007 we issued a declaration on joint actions to strengthen the nuclear nonproliferation regime and to promote the expansion of nuclear energy worldwide. We are working together and with other nations to develop mutually beneficial approaches for economical and reliable access to nuclear energy designed to permit states to gain the benefits of nuclear energy and to create a viable alternative to their acquisition of sensitive fuel cycle technologies. As nations with secure, advanced nuclear capabilities, we will provide assistance to countries considering nuclear energy in the development of the necessary infrastructure (including nuclear reactors), consider ways for facilitating financing, and will ensure, inter alia, provision of fresh fuel and spent fuel management.
International Uranium Enrichment Center: The Russian Federation has announced, and the U.S. has expressed support for, an initiative to create a global nuclear energy infrastructure that would provide for effective access to the benefits of nuclear energy. As the first step, Russia and Kazakhstan have established on the territory of Russia the International Uranium Enrichment Center.
Global Nuclear Energy Partnership: We are working with a wide range of other states to develop the next generation of civil nuclear capability that will be safe and secure, improve the environment, and reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation. GNEP is aimed at accelerating the development and deployment of advanced fuel cycle technologies including recycling that do not involve separating plutonium. Such advanced technologies, when available, would substantially reduce nuclear waste, simplify its disposition, and draw down existing inventories of civilian spent fuel in a safe, secure and proliferation resistant manner.
INPRO: The Russian Federation and the U.S. support the IAEA Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) that has brought together both the states with developed nuclear technology and states running small-scale nuclear programs or just developing plans for peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Reliable Access to Nuclear Fuel: Recognizing the need for an assured fuel supply, both the U.S. and Russia have committed to creating reliable access to nuclear fuel.
Reserve of low enriched uranium: The Russian Federation is working on the establishment of a stockpile of low enriched uranium to be available to the IAEA for ensuring reliable nuclear fuel supply.
Blending Down Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU): The U.S. is downblending 17.4 MT of excess HEU from its defense programs and is pledging $50 million to support establishment of an IAEA international fuel bank to ensure reliable supplies of nuclear fuel.
Iran: We remain committed to political and diplomatic efforts to find a negotiated solution guaranteeing that Iran's nuclear program is exclusively for peaceful purposes. We reiterate the necessity for Iran to comply with the requirements of the IAEA Board of Governors and United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1737, 1747, and 1803, including full and verifiable suspension of enrichment-related and reprocessing activities. We affirm our commitment on the way forward as expressed in the March 3, 2008 statement by the P5+1 Foreign Ministers. Russia's agreement to deliver nuclear fuel and take back spent fuel from Iran's nuclear reactor at Bushehr is a welcome step that provides Iran a civil nuclear power capability without the need for the indigenous enrichment of uranium or reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.
North Korea: We reaffirm our full support for the Six-Party Talks and will continue our cooperation in accordance with the agreements reached at the Six-Party Talks and the provisions of UNSC Resolution 1718 on the nuclear weapons and nuclear programs of North Korea in order to achieve the ultimate goals of the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
Agreement for Cooperation in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy: We will sign in the near future and work to bring into force the bilateral agreement between the Russian Federation and the United States that was initialed on June 29, 2007. This agreement will create the necessary legal basis for our cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and will permit the expansion of such cooperation. It will allow U.S. and Russian companies to partner in joint ventures, and transfer nuclear materials, reactors and major reactor components between our two countries. It is critical to facilitating U.S.-Russian further cooperation under bilateral programs and initiatives in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy, including the Declaration on Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation of July 3, 2007, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership.
Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism: The Global Initiative we launched in July 2006 has grown to include 67 participating countries plus the European Union and the IAEA as observers. Participating states are cooperating in strengthening their individual and collective capabilities to prevent terrorists from acquiring nuclear materials, to deny them safe haven and financial and other support, to share information on terrorist activities, to cooperate on law enforcement matters, and to deal with the consequences of an attack. We will continue to expand and strengthen this initiative and fully implement the agreed program of work.
Nuclear Security: We will complete our agreed-to nuclear security upgrades under the Bratislava Nuclear Security Initiative by the end of 2008. We look forward to these upgraded systems continuing to reliably serve their purpose for the years to come. The Senior Interagency Group will report back annually on implementation of the agreed actions under the Bratislava Initiative on emergency response, best practices, security culture, research reactors, and nuclear security upgrades. We will work together to share our nuclear security best practices with other nations, including through international fora.
Proliferation Security Initiative: We reaffirm our commitment to the Proliferation Security Initiative, which constitutes an important means to deter and prevent trafficking in WMD, their delivery means and related materials. We will work cooperatively to prevent and disrupt proliferation finance, in furtherance of the objectives of UNSCR 1540.
Combating Global Terrorism
Terrorism represents a grave danger to global security and stability, rule of law, human rights, and democratic values. The combination of international terrorism and the danger of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery represents a profound threat to the security of the United States, Russia, and other countries. We will work together to counter the terrorist threat both bilaterally and within the framework of international institutions.
Bilateral Cooperation: We are partners in the global struggle against terrorism. We will intensify our bilateral cooperation to include greater exchange of information on terrorist groups and specific terrorist threats to the security and prosperity of both countries. We will invigorate the U.S.-Russia Counterterrorism Working Group in all areas, including efforts to dismantle terrorist organizations and the networks that provide financial and material support to them. We will also work together to disrupt the full range of terrorist activities from recruitment, training, financing, and communications to the plotting of specific attacks. We will work more closely to combat money laundering and, in particular, the use of this practice by terrorists and criminal organizations to circumvent sanctions and undermine the financial system.
Multilateral Initiatives: We will expand our cooperative efforts through continued partnership in the United Nations and in other multilateral fora to include the OSCE, NATO-Russia Council, and the G-8, and in expanding the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. We will advance our counterterrorism goals at the United Nations, including through strengthening the Counterterrorism Committee and the 1267 sanctions regime.
We will work together to achieve critical objectives, including blocking terrorist groups from access to the financial resources they need to carry out their terrible acts, building counterterrorism will and capacity among countries around the world, promoting and strengthening international institutions that can combat terror, preventing the free transit and movement of known or suspected terrorists around the world, enhancing international law enforcement tools and cooperation to counter terrorist groups, creating a global consensus that rejects the use of terror for any reason, and actively engaging civil society and the business community in anti-terrorist efforts.
Strategic Economic Cooperation
We acknowledge the great potential for expanding bilateral trade and investment and the significant benefits this would bring to both of our economies. We recognize that to realize this potential, both nations must follow the fundamental principle of open market economies based on respect for the rule of law both domestically and internationally. We endorse the growing dynamism between our business communities and the profound importance of deepening economic engagement through both private sector and government channels to improve understanding and transparency, eliminate obstacles to trade and investment, and strengthen the institutions that will build confidence, certainty and predictability in our respective markets.
WTO: The United States and Russia are committed to achieving WTO accession for Russia as soon as possible and on commercially meaningful terms. We believe that with a major effort, especially between now and June of this year, and with the cooperation of other parties, and by meeting the terms for WTO accession, Russia can qualify for membership and thus accession to the WTO can be achieved this year. The United States is committed to working with Congress to achieve legislation on Jackson-Vanik and Permanent Normal Trade Relations with Russia. In conjunction with WTO negotiations, the U.S. Administration looks forward to working with the U.S. Congress and the business community to enact this legislation this year. In recognition of Russia's growing role as a major economy, the United States is also committed to helping Russia accede to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other global economic institutions.
Economic Dialogue: We will strengthen American-Russian economic and business interaction, including through the creation within the next few months of new business-to-business and government-to-government dialogues. These steps will help create conditions that will enhance our trade and investment relations, improve contacts between our business communities, and increase prosperity. Our economic dialogue will aim to identify areas where our laws and regulations impede trade and investment, improve the transparency of the business and investment environment, and strengthen the rule of law, all critical to the needs of a free-market economy and attracting new entrants to commerce between our two countries.
Bilateral Investment Treaty: The United States and Russia will advance our efforts on a new Bilateral Investment Treaty to provide a stable and predictable framework for investment to strengthen investor confidence, thereby benefiting the business communities in both our countries.
U.S.-Russia Energy Dialogue: Cooperation on energy remains an area of significant potential for both our nations. We task the existing U.S.-Russia Energy Working Group to find ways to enhance energy security and diversity of energy supplies through economically viable routes and means of transport, consistent with G-8 St. Petersburg principles. We will intensify U.S.-Russia energy collaboration through a new, more structured energy dialogue that would bring together the best Russian and American minds to focus on expanding energy supplies in an environmentally-friendly manner while developing new lower-carbon emission energy sources. We will take actions on collaboration in energy efficiency initiatives, development of clean coal technologies, fuel cells initiatives, within the framework of other R&D initiatives to compensate for declining traditional hydrocarbon reserves.
We will work together with other producing, consuming, and transit countries to strengthen the partnership among all interested parties and to enhance global energy security on an open, transparent, and commercially-viable basis.
Combating Climate Change
In the area of combating climate change we will work together with all major economies to advance key elements of the negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in order to achieve a comprehensive post-2012 framework that includes greenhouse gas limitation or reduction commitments by all major emitting economies consistent with their national circumstances and to address emissions in key sectors.