All CFR Reports

Developing a Proportionate Response to a Cyber Incident

Developing a Proportionate Response to a Cyber Incident

Author: Tobias Feakin

As offensive cyber activity becomes more prevalent, policymakers will be challenged to develop proportionate responses to disruptive or destructive attacks. Tobias Feakin outlines the variables that each state should consider in determining the appropriate response to a state-sponsored cyber incident.

See more in Global; Cybersecurity

Global Economics Monthly: August 2015

Author: Robert Kahn

Steven A. Tananbaum Senior Fellow for International Economics Robert Kahn argues that China’s request to include its currency, the renminbi (RMB), in an International Monetary Fund (IMF) currency basket, known as special drawing right (SDR), is political as much as economic in intent and effect. The inclusion would signal a milestone in China’s transition to a less-regulated economy. 

See more in China; Economics

Oil Prices, Low-Carbon Energy, and Climate Policy

Oil Prices, Low-Carbon Energy, and Climate Policy

For decades, oil prices have influenced the outlook for alternatives to oil and policies that support those alternatives. Expensive oil makes substitutes more appealing; cheap oil makes the economic case for alternatives that much more difficult. High prices in the 1970s kick-started clean energy, including the first modern electric vehicles, while the oil slump beginning in the 1980s pummeled sources like wind and solar power and undermined the push for more fuel-efficient cars.

See more in Global; Energy and Environment

New, Cheap, and Improved: Assessing the Promise of Reverse and Frugal Innovation to Address Noncommunicable Diseases

New, Cheap, and Improved: Assessing the Promise of Reverse and Frugal Innovation to Address Noncommunicable Diseases

Author: Thomas J. Bollyky

In recent years, frugal and reverse innovation have gained attention as potential strategies for increasing the quality and accessibility of health care while slowing the growth in its costs. Thomas J. Bollyky arges that the demand for these types of innovation is increasing and outlines three practical questions for policymakers seeking real investments and results.

See more in Global; Diseases, Noncommunicable; Innovation

Middle-Power Korea

Middle-Power Korea

Authors: Colin I. Bradford, Toby Dalton, Brendan Howe, Jill Kosch O’Donnell, Andrew O’Neil, and Scott A. Snyder

South Korean opinion leaders have increasingly investigated the idea of the ROK as a middle power as a primary framework for evaluating the opportunities and constraints arising from its emerging international role. The essays commissioned in this volume provide an initial evaluation of South Korean efforts to make substantive contributions to the international agenda as a middle power.

See more in Asia and Pacific; Politics and Strategy

Countering Islamic State Exploitation of the Internet

Countering Islamic State Exploitation of the Internet

Author: David P. Fidler

The use of social media and other Internet-enabled communications by the self-proclaimed Islamic State is pushing the United States and other democracies to react to the abuse of liberal freedoms by illiberal forces. CFR Visiting Fellow David P. Fidler outlines ways to counter the Islamic State's online onslaught through policies anchored in free speech, transparency, and accountability. 

See more in Syria; Iraq; Cybersecurity; Internet Policy

Libya’s Escalating Civil War

Libya’s Escalating Civil War

Author: Daniel P. Serwer

The potential chaos highlighted by a 2011 Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) Contingency Planning Memorandum, "Post-Qaddafi Instability in Libya," has come to fruition. Daniel P. Serwer outlines the unfolding crisis and recommends steps the United States, Europe, and Arab countries can take to help mitigate the fallout.

See more in Libya; Conflict Prevention; Fragile or Failed States

Fuel Subsidy Reform

Fuel Subsidy Reform

CFR convened roughly twenty experts for an all-day workshop in May 2015 to discuss fossil fuel subsidy reform. This report summarizes the highlights of that discussion.

See more in Global; Economics

2015 Report Card on International Cooperation

2015 Report Card on International Cooperation

As countries around the world struggle to combat major global challenges from terrorism to climate change, a Council of Councils Report Card on International Cooperation finds that multilateral action on most of the critical transnational threats is sorely lacking.

See more in Global; Global Governance

Conflict in the South China Sea

Conflict in the South China Sea

Author: Bonnie S. Glaser

Territorial disputes in the South China Sea continue to be a source of tension and potential conflict between China and other countries in the region. Bonnie S. Glaser argues that the United States should help lower the risk of conflict in the region, including the potential for dangerous military incidents involving U.S. and Chinese military forces.

See more in Asia and Pacific; Conflict Prevention

Promoting Norms for Cyberspace

Promoting Norms for Cyberspace

Author: Henry Farrell

U.S. efforts to promote its preferred norms for cyberspace—Internet openness, security, and free speech—suffered a significant setback in the summer of 2013 with the Snowden disclosures. Henry Farrell identifies three steps the United States can take to reinvigorate its norm-promotion efforts. 

See more in Global; United States; Cybersecurity; Diplomacy and Statecraft

Quality Control: Federal Regulation Policy

Quality Control: Federal Regulation Policy

The United States used to be the trailblazer in regulatory reform. But the rest of the rich world has caught up. This Progress Report and Scorecard from the Renewing America initiative outlines the current state of federal regulation in the United States and charts ways the U.S. regulatory management system could be improved.

See more in United States; Corporate Regulation

Global Economics Monthly: March 2015

Author: Robert Kahn

Steven A. Tananbaum Senior Fellow for International Economics Robert Kahn argues that while new collective action clauses are a step forward in dealing with sovereign debt crises, countries must work to change old debt that lacks the clauses to the new standard as quickly as possible.

See more in Global; Economics

Mitigating the Risks of Synthetic Biology

Mitigating the Risks of Synthetic Biology

Author: Gigi K. Gronvall

Gigi Kwik Gronvall examines the increased use of synthetic biology—a nascent field that engineers biology to improve manufacturing and the development of medicines—in order to highlight the need for oversight and better regulation.

See more in Global; Health