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Boko Haram

Nigeria's Islamist group Boko Haram has evolved from a local insurgency to a brutal militant group that the United States has designated a terrorist organization.

The U.S. Immigration Debate

Comprehensive immigration reform has eluded Congress for years, moving controversial policy decisions into the executive and judicial branches of government, explains this Backgrounder.

The Credit Rating Controversy

The three major credit rating agencies have been accused of contributing to the global financial crisis, drawing increased oversight from regulators in the United States and Europe. Nonetheless, investors continue to rely on the largely unchanged ratings services.

Global Efforts to Eradicate Polio

Though polio had nearly been eradicated, the virus is on the rise amid an increase in violence against vaccine workers in conflict zones. This Backgrounder examines the challenges to eradicating the disease.

The Eurozone in Crisis

The eurozone, once seen as a crowning achievement in the decades-long path toward European integration, continues to struggle with the effects of its sovereign debt crises and their implications for the future of the common currency.

Backgrounder Series

International Organizations

The Group of Seven (G7)

The recently reconstituted G7 is poised to serve as a forum for highly industrialized democracies to coordinate economic, security, and energy policy, but critics say that its membership is outdated, undermining its relevance to global governance.

The UN Security Council

The UN Security Council is the premier global body for maintaining international peace and security, but faces steady calls for reform to better meet twenty-first–century challenges.

The International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund, both criticized and lauded for its efforts to promote financial stability, finds itself again in the forefront of global economic crisis management.

The World Bank Group

Since its founding in 1944, the World Bank has evolved from a lender focused on European reconstruction into the preeminent international institution for economic development and poverty reduction.

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Terrorist Groups

Boko Haram

Nigeria's Islamist group Boko Haram has evolved from a local insurgency to a brutal militant group that the United States has designated a terrorist organization.

Al-Shabab

Some experts believe al-Shabab is at its weakest point in years following an African-led counterinsurgency campaign, but others warn of the group's resiliency in an unstable Somalia.

Islamic State of Iraq and Syria

Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has capitalized on Iraq's Sunni minority's alienation from the state, driven by sectarian politics and heavy-handed approaches to security, to wreak havoc and establish zones of authority while expanding its reach into neighboring Syria.

Hamas

Hamas is the main Palestinian armed resistance group, but the Islamist movement has struggled with governance since assuming control of Gaza.

Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)

Hezbollah's long-standing resistance to Israel gained this Lebanon-based Shiite political party and militant group broad support, but its involvement in Syria's civil war may jeopardize its domestic standing.

Pakistan's New Generation of Terrorists

Pakistan has emerged as a sanctuary for some of the world's most violent groups, including al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and homegrown militants, that threaten the stability of Pakistan as well as the region.

Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula has emerged as the most dangerous al-Qaeda affiliate, strengthening amid political unrest in Yemen. This Backgrounder examines the group and U.S. counterterrorism operations.

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Governance in India

Governance in India: Corruption

It remains unclear whether mounting public anger and flagging growth can catalyze India to address widespread official corruption.

Governance in India: Women's Rights

Several high-profile sexual assault cases in India have sparked a national debate over women's rights and the need for social reform in a rapidly modernizing country.


China's Rise

The Chinese Communist Party

The Chinese Communist Party faces a host of pressing domestic and international policy issues as it transitions to a new generation of leaders.

Media Censorship in China

China's central government has cracked down on press freedom as the country expands its international influence, but in the Internet age, many of its citizens hunger for a free flow of information.

South China Sea Tensions

As the United States pivots to Asia, disputes over territories in the South China Sea have escalated tensions and threatened regional stability.

China's Environmental Crisis

China's mounting environmental crisis is endangering the pace of its economic growth and threatening the legitimacy of the ruling party.

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Renewing America

The U.S. Immigration Debate

Comprehensive immigration reform has eluded Congress for years, moving controversial policy decisions into the executive and judicial branches of government, explains this Backgrounder.

Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)

Hydraulic fracturing has unlocked huge reserves of shale gas and oil, transforming the energy outlook in the United States and the world, even as local opposition and falling world prices threaten the industry.

Space Exploration and U.S. Competitiveness

U.S. space exploration inspired a generation of students and innovators, but NASA's role has diminished, and the number of global space competitors is growing. This Backgrounder explores U.S. competitiveness in space.

Driverless Cars

Tech and auto companies in the United States, Europe, and Asia are moving forward rapidly with efforts to develop driverless cars and street networks. The benefits appear tantalizing, but roadblocks loom.

Promoting Innovation Through R&D

Spending on research and development is cited as important to a globally competitive economy. But a crucial U.S. advantage appears to be eroding.

U.S. Deficits and the National Debt

The Obama administration's 2013 budget plan has revived debate over the sustainability of U.S. spending. As the United States emerges from a deep recession, it must maintain a tricky policy balance.

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