Foreign policy analyses written by CFR fellows and published by trade presses, academic presses, or the Council on Foreign Relations Press.
"Sanctions don't work" is an often-heard refrain. The reality, though, is more complex. Sanctions—mostly economic but also political and military penalties aimed at states or other entities to alter political and/or military behavior—almost always have consequences, sometimes desirable, at other times unwanted and unexpected.
See more in United States; Sanctions
By blocking international treaties banning land mines and child soldiers, the United States has become an obstacle to the advancement of human rights law.
See more in Global Governance
This book asks whether transatlantic economic relations will move toward increased conflict or collaboration: Will policymakers in Europe and the United States be encouraged by their mutual interests to collaborate in the pursuit of common goals? Or will competition fan conflict and recrimination?
See more in Europe; United States; International Finance
This conference volume is the second book in CPA's series of Preventive Action Reports. It uses CPA's case studies to examine the effectiveness of the tools of preventive action, and draws on comparative studies to guide the analysis of the case studies.
See more in Conflict Prevention
China’s dramatic recent rise to power raises a number of questions: Will it become an economic giant? Is it a status-quo power? Is it likely to invade Taiwan? The only thing we can know for sure is that the relationship between China and the United States will be one of the most important of the twenty-first century.
See more in Asia and Pacific
At first glance, a study on cities and foreign policy may seem a bold leap into the future of international relations, but it represents, rather, a giant step into the present—into what is already taking place across the country and around the world.
See more in United States; State and Local Governments
Trade Strategies for a New Era proposes concrete ways to cut the U.S. trade deficit, to deal with commercial problems arising from Asia's economic woes, and to bring back on track the recently derailed U.S. presidential fast-track authority. It offers a strategy to build the necessary bipartisan support inside the United States for trade policy and to help U.S. companies gain access to foreign markets.
See more in Trade
To investigate Nigeria and consider various strategies to meet iproblems the country is currently facing, the Council on Foreign Relations' Center for Preventive Action (CPA) established a working group on Nigeria.
See more in Nigeria; Conflict Prevention
The dislocations caused by the transition from communism—in particular unemployment and poverty—have increased the demand for social support. But the level of benefits set in the communist era is, in most of these countries, too high to be sustained without inflicting serious damage on their economies.
See more in Europe; Democratization
The glittering economic success of the New Asia has a dark side of drug trafficking, illegal migration, labor abuses, and pollution. These so-called transnational problems are grabbing headlines and forcing themselves onto the diplomatic agenda with increasing frequency, shouldering aside traditional questions of commerce and security.
See more in Asia and Pacific; Transnational Crime
This book addresses such questions as: What role did outside powers play in the dissolution of Yugoslavia and in the wars that wracked that once-stable country? Why did the victors in the Cold War and the 1991 Gulf War not act earlier to stop the slaughter?
See more in Yugoslavia; Conflict Assessment
This timely book offers a blueprint for resolving what is often called the most intractable--if not taboo--subject in the Arab-Israeli peace negotiations: a just and permanent solution to the problem of over 3 million Palestinian refugees.
See more in Refugees and the Displaced; Israel
How have the twenty-seven countries that emerged from communist rule between 1989 and 1992 fared since then? Postcommunism: Four Perspectives offers distinctive analyses by four leading scholars of politics, on the single most important social, political, and economic development of the last decade of the twentieth century.
See more in Democratization
In India, Pakistan, and the United States, Dr. Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli points out that the end of the Cold War and the rise of a new generation of Indians and Pakistanis willing to break with the past and concentrate on economic development provide opportunities for all three countries.
See more in Pakistan; Economic Development; India
This report, the first in a series on conflict prevention by the Center for Preventive Action (CPA) at the Council on Foreign Relations, presents recommendations to avert the spread of the ex-Yugoslav conflict into the South Balkans and to create a more enduring framework for peace and security in the region.
See more in Europe; Conflict Prevention
Richard N. Haass traces the evolution of the critical debate surrounding U.S. military force, taking into account the impact of new technologies, new states, new weapons, and new thinking about new sovereignty and intervention.
See more in Wars and Warfare; Humanitarian Intervention; International Organizations and Alliances
See more in Global; Competitiveness
Richard N. Haass argues that many regional conflicts are simply not ripe for solution and that international mediators who set out to accomplish less are likely to accomplish more.
See more in Diplomacy and Statecraft
Views held by important actors in the arms control process are tested against the historical record of negotiations and accords.
See more in Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament; Global