Foreign Affairs

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The Innovative State

Author: Mariana Mazzucato

The conventional view of what the state should do to foster innovation is simple: it just needs to get out of the way.

See more in Global; Economics

The Calm Before the Storm

Authors: Nassim Nicholas Taleb and Gregory F. Treverton

Even as protests spread across the Middle East in early 2011, the regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria appeared immune from the upheaval.

See more in Global; Fragile or Failed States

Europe Reborn

Authors: Matthias Matthijs and R. Daniel Kelemen

In 1982, The Economist marked the 25th anniversary of the European Economic Community, the precursor to the European Union, by featuring a tombstone dedicated to the organization on its cover.

See more in Europe; International Organizations and Alliances

Leaving the West Behind

Author: Hans Kundnani

Russia’s annexation of Crimea in March 2014 was a strategic shock for Germany. Suddenly, Russian aggression threatened the European security order that Germany had taken for granted since the end of the Cold War.

See more in Germany; Politics and Strategy

Under the Sea

Author: Robert Martinage

In recent years, U.S. officials have grown increasingly fearful of a massive cyberattack, one capable of crippling infrastructure and crashing markets.

See more in United States; Cybersecurity

Darkness Invisible

Authors: Thomas R. Insel, Pamela Y. Collins, and Steven E. Hyman

Four years ago, a team of scholars from the Harvard School of Public Health and the World Economic Forum prepared a report on the current and future global economic burden of disease.

See more in Global; Diseases, Noncommunicable

The G-Word

Author: Thomas de Waal

One hundred years ago this April, the Ottoman Empire began a brutal campaign of deporting and destroying its ethnic Armenian community, whom it accused of supporting Russia, a World War I enemy. More than a million Armenians died.

See more in Armenia; Genocide

Exit Music

Authors: Lawrence J. Korb and Rick Brennan

In describing what he characterizes as a bungled U.S. exit from Iraq, Rick Brennan (“Withdrawal Symptoms,” November/December 2014) presents an incomplete picture.

See more in Iraq; Defense and Security

Friends Without Benefits

Authors: Robert Boggs and Nicholas Burns

In his critique of U.S. President Barack Obama’s India policy, Nicholas Burns (“Passage to India,” September/October 2014) correctly identifies the issues that have bedeviled U.S.-Indian relations, such as differences over international agreements on climate change and trade.

See more in India; Diplomacy and Statecraft

Haters Gonna Hate

Authors: Christian Madsbjerg and Gregory Fried

The German philosopher Martin Heidegger has always been a deeply problematic character. Scholars have long known that Heidegger was an active and unapologetic Nazi.

See more in Global; Society and Culture

Nuclear Waste

Authors: James Blackwell and Barry Blechman

Barry Blechman and Russell Rumbaugh (“Bombs Away,” July/August 2014) have revived an old argument: U.S. tactical nuclear weapons are militarily useless, and so there is no reason for Washington to keep them in Europe.

See more in Europe; Defense and Security

A Hard Education

Authors: Gideon Rose and Jonathan Tepperman

After 13 years of war, the loss of many thousands of lives, and the expenditure of trillions of dollars, what has the United States learned? The answer depends on not only who is asking but when.

See more in Afghanistan; Iraq; Wars and Warfare

More Small Wars

Author: Max Boot

Although the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are far from the costliest the United States has ever fought in terms of either blood or treasure, they have exacted a much greater toll than the relatively bloodless wars Americans had gotten used to fighting in the 1990s.

See more in United States; Counterterrorism

Pick Your Battles

Author: Richard K. Betts

For more than a decade now, U.S. soldiers have been laboring under a sad paradox: even though the United States enjoys unprecedented global military dominance that should cow enemies mightily, it has found itself in constant combat for longer than ever before in its history, and without much to show for it.

See more in United States; Wars and Warfare

Withdrawal Symptoms

Author: Rick Brennan

In a speech at Fort Bragg on December 14, 2011, President Barack Obama declared that the U.S. military would soon depart Iraq, ending one of the longest wars in American history.

See more in Iraq; 9/11 Impact