Foreign Affairs

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Accepting Austerity

Author: Cindy Williams

Instead of hoping that a political miracle will spare the Pentagon from the budget ax, American defense officials need to start preparing for the inevitable. That means bringing personnel costs under control, getting on with strategic planning, and reshaping the forces for today's missions.

See more in United States; Defense Budget

Defense on a Diet

Author: Melvyn P. Leffler

The United States is now in a period of austerity, and after years of huge increases, the defense budget is set to be scaled back.

See more in United States; Defense Budget

Cyberwar and Peace

Author: Thomas Rid

Cyberwar Is Coming!" declared the title of a seminal 1993 article by the RAND Corporation analysts John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt, who argued that the nascent Internet would fundamentally transform warfare.

See more in United States; Cybersecurity

Never Saw It Coming

Author: Alan Greenspan

The former chair of the U.S. Federal Reserve asks how so many experts, including him, failed to see the 2008 financial crisis approaching. An important part of the answer to that question is a very old idea: Keynesian "animal spirits," the irrational elements of decisionmaking that have been left out of economic forecasting for too long.

See more in United States; Financial Crises

Bridge to Somewhere

Author: Jose W. Fernandez

International development has moved beyond charity. Gone are the days when the United States would just spend its seemingly bottomless largess to help less fortunate or vanquished countries, as it did after World War II.

See more in United States; Infrastructure

The Devolution of the Seas

Author: Alan B. Sielen

Of all the threats looming over the planet today, one of the most alarming is the seemingly inexorable descent of the world's oceans into ecological perdition.

See more in Global; Climate Change

The Spoils of War

Author: Max Hastings

For decades, World War II suffused the hearts and minds of the American generation that experienced it as "the good war," in which Allied virtue eventually triumphed over fascist evil.

See more in Europe; Wars and Warfare

India and Ideology

Author: Pankaj Mishra

According to Perry Anderson's new book, The Indian Ideology, India's democracy -- routinely celebrated as the world's largest -- is actually a sham.

See more in India; Democratization

In Search of the Real China

Author: John Pomfret

Over the last decade or so, historians and journalists have chipped away -- some with sledgehammers, others with mallets -- at several long-standing myths about China's past.

See more in China; Culture and Foreign Policy

Border Battle

Author: Enrique Krauze

Every country sooner or later confronts the sins of its past, though rarely all at once.

See more in Mexico; Immigration

How to Copy Right

Authors: Steven Tepp, Kal Raustiala, and Christopher Sprigman

In their essay "Fake It Till You Make It" (July/August 2013), Kal Raustiala and Christopher Sprigman urged the United States to "relax" when it comes to the flagrant disregard for intellectual property laws in China.

See more in China; Internet Policy

Africa's Turn

Author: Stuart Reid

Since it gained independence from France in 1960, the West African country of Senegal has been a bastion of stability and democracy on a continent that has seen relatively little of either.

See more in Africa (sub-Saharan); Development

How Big Business Can Save the Climate

Authors: Jerry Patchell and Roger Hayter

Multinational corporations dominate markets, trade, investment, research and development, and the spread of technology. To fight climate change, the international community needs to harness this power.

See more in Global; Energy and Environment

Who Is Ali Khamenei?

Author: Akbar Ganji

In June, Hassan Rouhani was elected president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Rouhani ran as a reform candidate, and many have interpreted his victory as a harbinger of a possible liberalization or rationalization of Iranian domestic and foreign policy. But the dominant figure in Iranian politics is not the president but rather the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

See more in Middle East and North Africa; Society and Culture

Ending the War in Afghanistan

Author: Stephen D. Biddle

International forces in Afghanistan are preparing to hand over responsibility for security to Afghan soldiers and police by the end of 2014. U.S. President Barack Obama has argued that battlefield successes since 2009 have enabled this transition and that with it, "this long war will come to a responsible end."

See more in Asia and Pacific; Defense and Security