Articles

Academic articles by CFR fellows and experts.

Political Parties at War: A Study of American War Finance, 1789–2010

Authors: Sarah E. Kreps and Gustavo A. Flores-Macias
The American Political Science Review

Sarah Kreps and Gustavo Flores-Macias study the history of war finance in the United States and show that politics does not stop at the water's edge and that instead, partisan politics is a key determinant for whether the United States has financed wars through taxes or alternatives such as borrowing.

See more in United States; Wars and Warfare; Economics

Legacy and Lessons of the Crisis

Authors: Charles A. Kupchan and Robert Kahn
German Times

Charles Kupchan and Robert Kahn argue that the European Union needs more rapid progress toward fiscal and banking union to escape its current economic and political crisis.

See more in Europe; Economics

Europe’s Make or Break Moment

Authors: Charles A. Kupchan and Robert Kahn
Survival

Charles Kupchan and Robert Kahn examine the economic and political crisis in the European Union and discuss ways to restore financial stability, economic growth and political legitimacy to the project of European integration.

See more in Europe; Economics

Syria, Threats of Force, and Constitutional War Powers

Author: Matthew C. Waxman
Yale Law Journal Online

Matthew Waxman argues that debates about constitutional war powers neglect the critical role of threats of war or force in U.S. foreign policy. The recent Syria case highlights the President's vast legal power to threaten military force as well as the political constraints imposed by Congress on such threats. Incorporating threats into an understanding of constitutional powers over war and peace upends traditional arguments about presidential flexibility and congressional checks—arguments that have failed to keep pace with changes in U.S. grand strategy.

See more in United States; Presidents and Chiefs of State; Grand Strategy

Extended Deterrence, Assurance, and Reassurance in the Pacific during the Second Nuclear Age

Authors: Mira Rapp-Hooper and Linton F. Brooks
National Bureau of Asian Research

Mira Rapp-Hooper and Linton Brooks analyze the complex relationships that exist around the extended deterrence of China and North Korea, including assuring U.S. allies in Asia of the reliability of U.S. security guarantees, and reassuring China that the US does not seek to thwart its peaceful rise.

See more in Asia and Pacific; Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation

A Big New Idea for U.S.-Pakistan Relations

Author: Daniel S. Markey
Defense One

While in Islamabad, Secretary of State John Kerry announced that the U.S.-Pakistan strategic dialogue would be resumed in order to foster "deeper, broader and more comprehensive partnership." These fine words will need a lot of hard work to back them up. It would help if President Obama's administration also came to the table with a big new idea to re-energize its difficult relationship with Islamabad. An ambitious and forward-looking way to frame Washington's agenda with Islamabad would be to consider it within the context of Pakistan's role in the broader U.S. "rebalancing" to Asia.

See more in Pakistan; Diplomacy and Statecraft

Walking Loudly and Carrying a Big Stick

Author: Micah Zenko
Foreign Policy

A divergence of opinions between males and females is an "enduring characteristic of polls on the use of military force, regardless of the weapons system employed, military mission undertaken, whether the intervening force is unilateral or multilateral, and the strategic objective proposed," says Micah Zenko. Citing polls from the early 1990s to today, he investigates why this persistent difference in opinion exists and what it may mean for U.S. foreign policy.

See more in United States; Defense Strategy; Defense Technology; Drones