In response to a Office of Science and Technology Policy 2013 memo on open access, the Department of Defense (DoD) released its framework creating, maintaining, and providing access to a repository of DoD research and data.
The Human Rights Unit of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) prepares mid-year reports on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict in Afghanistan, as mandated by United Nations Security Council Resolution 2096 (2013), which "recognizes the importance of ongoing monitoring and reporting to the United Nations Security Council on the situation of civilians in Afghanistan's armed conflict and in particular on civilian casualties."
Cuban President Raul Castro Ruz spoke at the Third Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Spanish: Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, or CELAC) Summit on January 28, 2015. He discussed how CELAC countries have supported each other through economic, security, and political agreements. President Castro also laid out the conditions he wants as Cuba and the United States reestablish diplomatic relations.
On January 26, 2015 at the U.S.-India Business Council Summit, President Obama lays out new U.S. initiatives to increase investment and trade in India, related to removing barriers to investment, technology transfer, and inclusive growth.
U.S. President Barack Obama and Indian President Narendra Modi made this joint statement on January 26, 2015. They discussed clean energy and climate change, civil nuclear cooperation, and defense and economic cooperation. Both administrations also discussed their visions to strengthen ties in the Asia-Pacific region. Defense secretaries from both countires met in June 2015 and released the U.S.-India Defense Framework.
The Munich Security Report was released on January 26, 2015, described in the press release as "an annual digest on critical questions and important trends in the field of international security policy." The first section of the report focuses on the roles of international actors, Germany, United States, Europe, NATO, Russia, and emerging powers. The second section discusses three "hot spots"-- Ukraine, the Middle East, and Asia Pacific. The third section reviews major issues such as terrorism, energy security, and refugee crises, and the fourth section suggests additional reading and research materials.
In 2015, the United States assumed the Chair of the Arctic Council and President Barack Obama released this executive order for coordinating U.S. federal efforts and priorities in the Arctic and working with Alaska tribal governments on issues of climate change, national security, scientific research, energy, and more.
On January 15, 2015,the Treasury and Commerce Departments released amendments to financial sanctions on Cuba, after President Obama announced diplomatic and economic changes in U.S. policy toward Cuba.
The CIA accountability board produced this report in response to accusations from the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that the CIA had accessed without authorization the Committee's shared computer drive and removed some files, potential violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and the Wiretap Act. The computer drive contained files related to the Committee's investigation of the CIA's "enhanced interrogation" practices. The CIA's report overturned the CIA inspector general's July 31 report that agents had acted improperly in accessing the shared drive.
This press release previews the Obama administration's proposed legislation on cybersecurity issues, including increasing information sharing between agencies, modernizing law enforcement capabilities to address cybercrime, improving consumer protection online, and funding cybersecurity information at historically black colleges.
On January 11, 2015, the EU released a preview and fact sheet of the European Agenda on Security, "Fighting terrorism at EU level, an overview of Commission's actions, measures and initiatives," which will be adopted in early 2015 and provide the focus for security priorities during 2015-2020. Most of the strategy will concetrate on counterterrorism efforts. Additional EU security strategies were released in 2003 and in 2010.
The U.S.-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue was created by U.S. President Barack Obama and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto in May 2013 and the first cabinet-level meeting was convened September 2013 in Mexico City. Vice President Biden hosted the January 6, 2015 meeting in Washington. Participating U.S. agencies include Departments of State and Commerce, and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. In 2015, strategic goals are focused on energy; modern borders; work force development; regulatory cooperation; partnering in regional and global leadership; and stakeholder engagement.
The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) on April 2, 2013. The press release says the treaty makes it "harder for human rights abusers, criminals and arms traffickers to obtain weapons" and gives a brief history of the treaty from the 1990s. ATT went into effect December 24, 2014. The United States signed the treaty, but Senate has not yet ratified it.
The National Defense Authorization Act of 2015 was signed on December 19, 2014 as Public Law 113-291, "to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2015 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe military personnel strengths for such fiscal year, and for other purposes." It requires a regular report on U.S. support operations in Afghanistan through 2017.
President Barack Obama announced changes to the U.S. policy toward Cuba on December 17, 2014. Changes include reestablishing diplomatic relations for the first time since 1961, reviewing Cuba's designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism according to the U.S. State Department, and increasing travel, trade, and commerce between the countries. In a speech to the Community of Latin America and Caribbean States Summit in January 2015, Cuban President Raul Castro describes conditions he wants as the two countries reestablish relations. At the Summit of the Americas in April 2015, which Cuba attended for the first time, President Obama and President Castro began discussions on these policy changes.
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea Treaty covers a variety of ocean-usage issues such as transit, mining, research, pollution, and resource management and sets out guidelines for nations. Territorial claims can be submitted to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. On December 15, 2014, Denmark and Greenland submitted a claim to part of the Arctic, including the North Pole, which Russia and Canada each claim as their territory.
United Nations Climate Change Conference met in Lima, Peru, December 1-14, 2014. The conference aims to keep governments on track towards a universal climate agreement in 2015. The 2014 conference was the first time countries could undergo a review of developed countries' efforts to reduce emmissions.
India now matters to U.S. interests in virtually every dimension. This Independent Task Force report assesses the current situation in India and the U.S.-India relationship, and suggests a new model for partnership with a rising India.
Rates of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries are increasing faster than in wealthier countries. The report outlines a plan for collective action on this growing epidemic.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2015 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »
Now Available: Foreign Policy Begins at Home
The biggest threat to America's security and prosperity comes not from abroad but from within, writes CFR President Richard N. Haass in his provocative new book. More