Africa (sub-Saharan)

Foreign Affairs Article

What Really Happened in Congo

Author: Stephen R. Weissman

It didn't take long for Congo's transition from Belgian colony to sovereign state to turn ugly. Both the Soviet Union and the United States were keeping a close eye on the mineral-rich country at the heart of Africa when, on June 30, 1960, it gained independence under a democratically elected government headed by Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba.

See more in Congo, Republic of; Regime Changes

Primary Sources

Press Briefing by Rear Admiral Kirby on Secretary Hagel's Middle East Trip and U.S. Response to Kidnappings in Nigeria

On May 09, 2014, Press Secretary Rear Admiral John Kirby previewed Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel's travel to Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Israel. Rear Admiral Kirby also provided details on U.S. participation in a coordination cell in Nigeria, to help Nigerian authorities analyze intelligence regarding Boko Haram's kidnapping of school girls.

See more in Middle East and North Africa; Nigeria; Intelligence

Transcript

Media Call on Nigeria

Speakers: John Campbell and Johnnie Carson
Presider: Robert McMahon

CFR Senior Fellow and former ambassador to Nigeria John Campbell and former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs and Senior Advisor at the United States Institute of Peace Johnnie Carson discussed the recent violence and kidnappings in northern Nigeria and preparations for the World Economic Forum starting in Abuja.

See more in Nigeria; Peace, Conflict, and Human Rights

Audio

Media Call on Nigeria

CFR Senior Fellow and former ambassador to Nigeria John Campbell and former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs and Senior Advisor at the United States Institute of Peace Johnnie Carson discussed the recent violence and kidnappings in northern Nigeria and preparations for the World Economic Forum starting in Abuja.

See more in Nigeria; Peace, Conflict, and Human Rights

Foreign Affairs Article

Rebooting Rwanda

Author: Paul Kagame

On April 6, 1994, a plane carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana was shot down by unidentified assailants. The next day, the killings began. Over the next three months, as the international community stood by, an estimated one million Rwandans—Tutsis and moderate Hutus—were systematically slaughtered by Hutu extremists, mostly using clubs and machetes.

See more in Rwanda; Genocide

Must Read

New Yorker: Nigeria's Stolen Girls

Author: Alexis Okeowo

"The circumstances of the kidnapping, and the military's deception, especially, have exposed a deeply troubling aspect of Nigeria's leadership: when it comes to Boko Haram, the government cannot be trusted. Children have been killed, along with their families, in numerous Boko Haram bombings and massacres over the past five years."

See more in Nigeria; Peace, Conflict, and Human Rights

Must Read

New Republic: Hell Is an Understatement

Author: Graeme Wood

"About 15 percent of Central Africans are Muslims, and for much of the country's 54-year history, they lived in relative harmony with the Christian majority. But in the last year, CAR has collapsed—first in a spasm of political violence and now in a grisly carnival of factional and religious slaughter that has left it one of the very worst places on Earth."

See more in Central African Republic; Peace, Conflict, and Human Rights

Foreign Affairs Article

Reforming Nigeria

Author: Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala

Born to professors in what was then still a British colony, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala was a teenager when civil war broke out in Nigeria seven years after independence, and she ended up working as a cook for the Biafran rebels on the frontlines.

See more in Nigeria; International Finance