This module features teaching notes by former CFR senior fellow Lee Feinstein, the author of Darfur and Beyond, along with other resources to supplement the text. In the report, Feinstein argues that the new UN secretary-general should take the General Assembly's endorsement of responsibility to protect as a mandate and outlines steps the United States and others must follow to bolster UN action.
See more in Sub-Saharan Africa, International Law, International Peace and Security
This Council-sponsored Independent Task Force Report argues that Africa is becoming steadily more central to the United States and to the rest of the world in ways that transcend humanitarian interests. The module supports the report's comprehensive policy recommendations with multimedia resources that explore in greater detail the most pressing issues facing Africa today.
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The Arab League's decision to suspend Syria if it fails to end its violence must be followed by economic and political sanctions, including trade and oil embargoes, say analysts.
See more in North Africa, Syria, Democracy and Human Rights
This CFR Issue Guide provides expert analysis and essential background on some of the central issues facing Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Syria, and Yemen, as the Arab Spring enters a critical new phase.
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While Qaddafi's death is a victory for Libya's interim government and its international backers, analysts caution that the country's new leaders will have to resolve factional disputes and establish a functioning civil society ahead of democratic elections.
See more in Libya, Political Movements
As Libya moves ahead with a leadership transition, it faces challenges including restarting the economy, dealing with humanitarian abuses, and the rising influence of Islamists.
See more in Libya, International Peace and Security
Libya, Syria, and Egypt headline the latest "Arab Awakening" developments. This CFR Issue Guide offers expert insight into the causes and consequences of the region's upheaval.
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As Libyan rebels press for control of the state and the ouster of Muammar al-Qaddafi, experts warn about the troubles ahead in maintaining security and rebuilding a country emerging from forty-two years of autocratic rule.
See more in Libya, Conflict Prevention, Political Movements
The International Criminal Court's warrants for the arrest of Libya's Qaddafi stir debate about whether they will facilitate or hinder his demise and about the effectiveness of the ICC itself.
See more in Libya, International Criminal Courts and Tribunals
A debate over presidential war powers has refocused attention on the scope and purpose of the U.S. military role in Libya and what it means for policy toward other brutal Arab regimes.
See more in Libya, International Peace and Security, U.S. Strategy and Politics
Following the G8's tough stand on political repression, the weekend saw increased violence in Libya, Syria, and Yemen along with signals of regime weakening. Some experts say the U.S. should take a tougher line with Libya and Syria.
See more in North Africa, Middle East, Democracy and Human Rights, International Peace and Security
As some NATO countries move to send advisers to help Libyan rebels, debate remains unsettled on whether charting a path to greater military involvement or a negotiated political solution is the right approach.
See more in Libya, Democratization, Political Movements
Any outcome of the Libyan war will require boots on the ground, say analysts, urging the international community to focus on helping the country rebuild civil, political, and social institutions that serve Libyan national interests.
See more in Libya, Nation Building
As the United States hands over airstrike control to NATO, the Obama administration faces congressional debate over who the rebels are, whether they're capable of governing, and whether or not to arm them.
See more in Libya, Humanitarian Intervention, U.S. Strategy and Politics
Intervention in Libya has been justified by the "responsibility to protect" doctrine. But debate is growing over whether Libya meets the criteria, and the mission's success is challenged by lack of clarity on objectives.
See more in Libya, Global Governance
The U.S. and European allies face increasing questions about the extent of their air bombardment of the Libyan regime's forces, as broader regional unrest, especially in Yemen, also poses troubles for policymakers.
See more in Libya, Wars and Warfare
As troops loyal to Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi stepped up attacks on rebel forces, the United States and NATO moved ahead with discussions of a no-fly zone, though the debate is far from settled.
See more in Libya, Democracy and Human Rights, Political Movements
As Libya seems headed for civil war after three weeks of fighting, the Obama administration and members of Congress are squaring off over the question of imposing a no-fly zone.
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As opposition and pro-regime forces stepped up battles in Libya, international pressure mounted on leader Muammar al-Qaddafi. Analysts raised doubts about Libya's leadership prospects should Qaddafi depart.
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An effort led by Western nations against Libya's Muammar al-Qaddafi has resulted in UN sanctions and more, while protests across the Arab world show no signs of abating.
See more in Libya, Middle East, Democracy and Human Rights